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Test Bank Brain & Behavior An Introduction to Behavioral Neuroscience 5th Edition by Bob Garrett

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Test Bank Brain & Behavior An Introduction to Behavioral Neuroscience 5th Edition by Bob Garrett

Test Bank Brain & Behavior An Introduction to Behavioral Neuroscience 5th Edition by Bob Garrett

 

Chapter 1: What Is Behavioral Neuroscience?

 

Test Bank

 

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

1. What modern invention has the brain been compared to in terms of storage capacity?

 

a. a Google server

 

b. a smartphone

 

c. the Internet

 

d. a compact disc

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: What is Behavioral Neuroscience?

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

2. The decade of the 1990s was designated as the decade of ______.

 

a. the brain

 

b. the mind

 

c. cognition

 

d. behavior

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-3: Identify the role of physiologists in the establishment of modern-day behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: What is Behavioral Neuroscience?

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

3. Which of the following is a recent discovery in the field of behavioral neuroscience?

 

a. The cause of depression has been identified.

 

b. Dementia has been cured.

 

c. The brain area responsible for consciousness has been identified.

 

d. Genes for schizophrenia have been identified.

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-3: Identify the role of physiologists in the establishment of modern-day behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: What is Behavioral Neuroscience?

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

4. What do behavioral neuroscientists study?

 

a. the relationship between the body and the brain

 

b. the relationship between behavior and the body

 

c. the structure of the body

 

d. the rules that describe how behavior is modifiable by experience

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Origins of Behavioral Neuroscience

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

5. Which of the following terms can be used interchangeably with “behavioral neuroscience”?

 

a. psychology

 

b. biology

 

c. behavioral genetics

 

d. psychobiology

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Origins of Behavioral Neuroscience

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

6. Psychologists consider emotions, thoughts, memories, and observable acts to be characterized as ______.

 

a. cognitions

 

b. behaviors

 

c. processes

 

d. mysteries of the mind

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Origins of Behavioral Neuroscience

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

7. Which of the following would be a question that a behavioral neuroscientist would investigate?

 

a. Which neurotransmitter systems are responsible for the development of drug addiction?

 

b. Which muscles focus the eye on a moving object?

 

c. Is there a genetic predisposition for cancer?

 

d. What are the diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder?

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

 

Answer Location: The Origins of Behavioral Neuroscience

 

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

8. If you were able to build a time machine and wanted to travel back to observe the first psychology laboratory, where would you go?

 

a. to Charles Darwin’s office in Germany

 

b. to Charles Darwin’s boat in England

 

c. to Wilhelm Wundt’s lab in Germany

 

d. to Rene Descartes’ apothecary in France

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Origins of Behavioral Neuroscience

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

9. Which of the following is true of the mind–brain question?

 

a. It was originally posed by early neuroscientists and remains unsolved today.

 

b. It is concerned with the nature of the mind and its relation to the brain.

 

c. It usually involves a choice between the positions of psychology and philosophy.

 

d. It usually involves a choice between the positions of psychology and biology.

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the mind-brain problem in behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Prescientific Psychology and the Mind-Brain Problem

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

10. The textbook authors and many neuroscientists view the mind as a ______.

 

a. spirit

 

b. soul

 

c. source of our actions

 

d. concept

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the mind-brain problem in behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Prescientific Psychology and the Mind-Brain Problem

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

11. Which of the following statements is most consistent with the materialistic monist view of the mind–brain problem?

 

a. The brain and the mind are both physical.

 

b. Everything is made of matter and energy.

 

c. The body is made of matter, whereas the mind is not.

 

d. Both hemispheres of the brain work together.

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the mind-brain problem in behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Prescientific Psychology and the Mind-Brain Problem

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

12. Which of the following statements is most consistent with the dualism view of the mind–brain problem?

 

a. The brain and the mind are both physical.

 

b. Everything is made of matter and energy.

 

c. The body is made of matter, whereas the mind is not.

 

d. Both hemispheres of the brain work together.

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the mind-brain problem in behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Prescientific Psychology and the Mind-Brain Problem

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

13. Which of the following statements is most consistent with the idealistic monism view of the mind–brain problem?

 

a. The brain and the mind are both physical.

 

b. The mind and brain are not physical.

 

c. The body is made of matter, whereas the mind is not.

 

d. Both hemispheres of the brain work together.

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the mind-brain problem in behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Prescientific Psychology and the Mind-Brain Problem

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

14. Which mind–brain view is most likely to be held by a neuroscientist?

 

a. idealistic monism

 

b. materialistic monism

 

c. interactionism

 

d. dualism

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the mind-brain problem in behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Prescientific Psychology and the Mind-Brain Problem

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

15. If you say you are a dualist, you are saying you believe in ______.

 

a. the mind and the spirit

 

b. only the nonmaterial

 

c. a mind that is separate from the brain

 

d. the body and the brain

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the mind-brain problem in behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Prescientific Psychology and the Mind-Brain Problem

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

16. If you say you are a monist, you are saying you believe in ______.

 

a. just the mind

 

b. both the material and the nonmaterial

 

c. just the spiritual

 

d. the brain and mind being composed of the same substance

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the mind-brain problem in behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Prescientific Psychology and the Mind-Brain Problem

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

17. Which of the following is an accurate statement about the origins of the mind–brain problem?

 

a. This problem was first debated by psychologists in the late 1800s.

 

b. This problem was first debated by philosophers in the fifth century BCE.

 

c. This problem was first debated by Darwin’s followers in the late 1800s.

 

d. This problem was first debated by neuroscientists in the 1990s.

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the mind-brain problem in behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Prescientific Psychology and the Mind-Brain Problem

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

18. Which of the following individuals was a dualist?

 

a. Plato

 

b. Democritus

 

c. Aristotle

 

d. Darwin

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the mind-brain problem in behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Prescientific Psychology and the Mind-Brain Problem

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

19. Dr. Smith believes that both the mind and the brain are made of physical matter. Which philosopher would agree most with Dr. Smith’s views?

 

a. Descartes

 

b. Plato

 

c. Democritus

 

d. Wundt

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the mind-brain problem in behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

 

Answer Location: Prescientific Psychology and the Mind-Brain Problem

 

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

20. What difficulty did dualists face in finding support for their views regarding the mind and brain?

 

a. explaining how a physical brain could result in mental processes

 

b. explaining how the mind could exist

 

c. explaining how the brain could exist

 

d. explaining how a nonphysical mind could impact a physical body

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the mind-brain problem in behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Prescientific Psychology and the Mind-Brain Problem

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

21. What difficulty did monists face in finding support for their views regarding the mind and brain?

 

a. explaining how a physical brain could result in mental processes

 

b. explaining how the mind could exist

 

c. explaining how the brain could exist

 

d. explaining how a nonphysical mind could impact a physical body

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the mind-brain problem in behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Prescientific Psychology and the Mind-Brain Problem

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

22. Which of the following was a barrier to resolving the mind–brain problem during the time of the early philosophical debates in the fifth century BCE?

 

a. The mind could only be observed in corpses.

 

b. The mind could only be observed in nonhuman animals.

 

c. There was not an understanding of how the brain or its cells functioned.

 

d. Introspection provided limited views of the brain.

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the mind-brain problem in behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Prescientific Psychology and the Mind-Brain Problem

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

23. Nakia wants to better understand the neural basis of deception, so she recruits people to undergo brain scans while they tell a lie. The fact that Nakia believes she can uncover where deceptions come from in the brain reveals that Nakia is a ______.

 

a. dualist

 

b. idealistic monist

 

c. materialistic monist

 

d. philosopher

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the mind-brain problem in behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

 

Answer Location: Prescientific Psychology and the Mind-Brain Problem

 

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

24. A(n) ______ is a proposed mechanism to explain how something, usually more complex than the proposed mechanism, works.

 

a. assumption

 

b. model

 

c. construct

 

d. hypothesis

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Descartes and the Physical Model of Behavior

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

25. Which of the following is a true statement about scientific models?

 

a. A model can only be a theory that explains why a behavior occurs.

 

b. A model can only be an organism or system that includes components of a behavior that is studied.

 

c. A model organism is typically more complex than the organism that scientists are working to understand.

 

d. A model can be either a theory or a simple organism or system.

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Descartes and the Physical Model of Behavior

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

26. Based on the discussion of models in the textbook, why do many behavioral neuroscientists study rats?

 

a. Rats are complex animals.

 

b. Rats are simpler systems than humans.

 

c. Rats are more complex than computers.

 

d. Rats were central to Darwin’s theory.

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Descartes and the Physical Model of Behavior

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

27. Researchers have used computers to model ______ that occur(s) in humans.

 

a. cognitive processes

 

b. Alzheimer’s disease

 

c. only simplistic behaviors

 

d. only abnormal behaviors

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Descartes and the Physical Model of Behavior

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

28. According to Descartes, the brain controlled behavior by ______.

 

a. directing spirit fluid through nerves, thereby inflating the muscles

 

b. tilting the spinal cord like a joystick

 

c. bending energy from an outside light source

 

d. actively directing the pineal gland to inflate and deflate

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Descartes and the Physical Model of Behavior

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

29. Descartes used a ______ model for the activity of the human brain.

 

a. hydraulic

 

b. computer

 

c. rat

 

d. connectionist

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Descartes and the Physical Model of Behavior

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

30. According to Descartes, ______ was where the mind interacted with the body.

 

a. the pituitary gland

 

b. the ventricles of the brain

 

c. fluid filled nerves and muscles

 

d. the pineal gland

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Descartes and the Physical Model of Behavior

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

31. Why did Descartes choose the pineal gland as the “seat of the soul”?

 

a. It was a hollow structure.

 

b. It was attached just below the two cerebral hemispheres.

 

c. It looked like a pump.

 

d. It was the largest visible structure in the brain.

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Descartes and the Physical Model of Behavior

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

32. What was the major drawback of Descartes’ view of the mind–brain problem?

 

a. It was a theory.

 

b. It was not tested by empirical methods.

 

c. It was a hydraulic model.

 

d. It was based on an understanding of how the brain worked, but not the body.

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Descartes and the Physical Model of Behavior

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

33. Which individual was a seventeenth-century French philosopher and physiologist?

 

a. Paul Broca

 

b. Eduard Hitzig

 

c. Rene Descartes

 

d. Gustav Fritsch

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Descartes and the Physical Model of Behavior

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

34. How did Descartes’ hydraulic model of brain functioning hold up to scientific testing?

 

a. There is currently evidence to support this model of brain functioning.

 

b. This model is not supported by modern observations of brain functioning.

 

c. There has not been sufficient testing to determine if this model is supported.

 

d. This model is not scientifically testable.

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Descartes and the Physical Model of Behavior

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

35. Reaching conclusions about the brain by observation is the method for obtaining knowledge called ______.

 

a. empiricism

 

b. dualism

 

c. monism

 

d. idealism

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Descartes and the Physical Model of Behavior

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

36. Rosalind thinks that the hippocampus is needed for new memories to be formed. In order to determine if she is correct, she conducts a study in which people perform a memory task while having their brains scanned. Rosalind is using the method of ______ to learn about the brain.

 

a. monism

 

b. intuition

 

c. empiricism

 

d. dualism

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

 

Answer Location: Descartes and the Physical Model of Behavior

 

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

37. Philosophers of the Renaissance proposed models of how the brain works while later ______ tested models of how the brain works using scientific methods.

 

a. thinkers

 

b. individualistic monists

 

c. dualists

 

d. empiricists

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Descartes and the Physical Model of Behavior

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

38. From Descartes’ work on the hydraulic model of brain functioning, we can see that models or theories are ______.

 

a. sometimes proven to be incorrect

 

b. always correct

 

c. never tested

 

d. based on a lack of thought about a problem

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Descartes and the Physical Model of Behavior

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

39. What was the inspiration for Descartes’ model of brain function?

 

a. a stream

 

b. statues in the gardens at St. Germain

 

c. a frog’s leg

 

d. Plato’s idea of dualism

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Descartes and the Physical Model of Behavior

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

40. Why was Descartes’ hydraulic model of brain function an important step in modern understanding of the brain?

 

a. This model correctly marked the pineal gland as the “seat of the soul.”

 

b. This model correctly stated that muscles were inflated with liquid, which led to movement.

 

c. This model predicted the existence of encased nerve cells.

 

d. This model was a first attempt at providing a physical explanation for behavior.

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Descartes and the Physical Model of Behavior

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

41. Who first observed that muscles would respond to electrical stimulation?

 

a. Gustav Fritsch

 

b. Paul Broca

 

c. Eduard Hitzig

 

d. Luigi Galvani

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-3: Identify the role of physiologists in the establishment of modern-day behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Helmholtz and the Electrical Brain

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

42. Who first showed that movement would result from electrical stimulation of the brain?

 

a. Fritsch and Galvani

 

b. Broca and Helmholtz

 

c. Fritsch and Hitzig

 

d. Hitzig and Helmholtz

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-3: Identify the role of physiologists in the establishment of modern-day behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Helmholtz and the Electrical Brain

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

43. Who first measured the speed of conduction in the nervous system?

 

a. Hermann von Helmholtz

 

b. Rene Descartes

 

c. Eduard Hitzig

 

d. Paul Broca

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-3: Identify the role of physiologists in the establishment of modern-day behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Helmholtz and the Electrical Brain

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

44. Helmholtz calculated the velocity of the electrical nerve impulse to be about ______.

 

a. 90 meters/second

 

b. 90 feet/second

 

c. 900 feet/second

 

d. 186,000 miles/second

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-3: Identify the role of physiologists in the establishment of modern-day behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Helmholtz and the Electrical Brain

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

45. When did scientists first become aware that the body operates using electrical signals?

 

a. late 1700s

 

b. late 1800s

 

c. early 1900s

 

d. 1990s

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-3: Identify the role of physiologists in the establishment of modern-day behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Helmholtz and the Electrical Brain

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

46. What force did physiologists Galvani and Helmholtz show was responsible for animation of the body?

 

a. electricity

 

b. chemicals

 

c. animal spirits

 

d. water

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-3: Identify the role of physiologists in the establishment of modern-day behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Helmholtz and the Electrical Brain

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

47. What type of approach did Helmholtz take in investigating how the nervous system works?

 

a. idealistic monist

 

b. empiricist

 

c. dualist

 

d. artistic

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-3: Identify the role of physiologists in the establishment of modern-day behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Helmholtz and the Electrical Brain

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

48. In addition to studying the role of electricity in the functioning of nerve cells, Helmholtz also studied ______.

 

a. smell

 

b. drug addiction

 

c. vision

 

d. anger

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-3: Identify the role of physiologists in the establishment of modern-day behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Helmholtz and the Electrical Brain

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

49. Which of the following scientists provided the first insights into the role of electricity in biological functioning?

 

a. Hermann von Helmholtz

 

b. Eduard Hitzig

 

c. Gustav Fritsch

 

d. Luigi Galvani

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-3: Identify the role of physiologists in the establishment of modern-day behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Helmholtz and the Electrical Brain

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

50. Which of the following individuals was important to developing the understanding that nerve cells communicate using electrical signals?

 

a. Hermann von Helmholtz

 

b. Rene Descartes

 

c. Paul Broca

 

d. Phineas Gage

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-3: Identify the role of physiologists in the establishment of modern-day behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Helmholtz and the Electrical Brain

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

51. Which of the following individuals performed work that best fits the method of empiricism?

 

a. Rene Descartes

 

b. Gustav Fritsch

 

c. Plato

 

d. Aristotle

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-3: Identify the role of physiologists in the establishment of modern-day behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Helmholtz and the Electrical Brain

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

52. Which of the following people was a physiologist?

 

a. Phineas Gage

 

b. Paul Broca

 

c. Luigi Galvani

 

d. Aristotle

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-3: Identify the role of physiologists in the establishment of modern-day behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Helmholtz and the Electrical Brain

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

53. Which of the following statements is true about the case of Phineas Gage?

 

a. He did not survive the railroad accident.

 

b. His case supported the equipotentiality view.

 

c. The major damage he experienced was in the temporal lobes.

 

d. The major damage he experienced was in the frontal lobes.

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

54. Which of the following conclusions was reached from observations at autopsy on the brain of a man who had an inability to speak?

 

a. Speech is localized in the left side of the brain.

 

b. Speech is not localized in a particular brain region.

 

c. Speech is inherited.

 

d. Auditory reflexes are found in the dominant hemisphere.

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

55. Who first localized the speech control center in the human brain?

 

a. Galvani

 

b. Gage

 

c. Broca

 

d. Fritsch

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

56. The proposition that specific brain areas control specific functions is ______.

 

a. functionalism

 

b. neuroscience

 

c. specific nerve control

 

d. localization

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

57. Through their experiments, Fritsch and Hitzig showed that ______.

 

a. movement could be produced in an animal by providing electrical current to the brain

 

b. the rate of nerve conduction is about 90 feet per second

 

c. the left hemisphere controls speech

 

d. sensation is the result of electrical activity in the brain

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-3: Identify the role of physiologists in the establishment of modern-day behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Helmholtz and the Electrical Brain

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

58. A woman is involved in a car crash and, as a result, cannot speak at all for several days. Surprisingly, she can still hear and understand what her doctor is saying perfectly well. If her doctor ordered a CAT scan of her brain (a form of X-ray), where might the doctor see damage/swelling?

 

a. in her pineal gland

 

b. in her right parietal lobe

 

c. in her left frontal lobe

 

d. in both sides of her motor cortex

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

59. Whereas phrenology claimed to precisely localize faculties in the brain, ______ argued that virtually no functions were precisely localized.

 

a. Gall

 

b. Lashley

 

c. Spurzheim

 

d. Broca

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

60. Modern research tells us that functions or characteristics are ______.

 

a. mostly localized

 

b. mostly distributed

 

c. both localized and distributed

 

d. centralized

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

61. How have cases of people with brain damage, such as Phineas Gage and Broca’s patient, contributed to our understanding of the relationship between brain and behavior?

 

a. These cases have demonstrated that electrical signaling occurs in the human brain.

 

b. These cases have shown that specific brain areas control some specific behaviors.

 

c. These cases have provided evidence for equipotentiality.

 

d. These cases have refuted monism.

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

62. Phineas Gage’s changes in behavior following brain damage showed that the ______ is involved in planning behavior to fit with social expectations.

 

a. parietal lobe

 

b. Broca’s area

 

c. pineal gland

 

d. frontal lobe

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

63. Laurie had a stroke that damaged part of her brain. In the weeks following the stroke, her family reported that she had difficulty following through on tasks – they would find that she would go grocery shopping but then leave half the groceries out on the counter to rot. In addition, instead of completing tasks that she used to handle around the house, she would sit and play video games for hours each day. What part of the brain was likely impacted by the stroke?

 

a. occipital lobe

 

b. pineal gland

 

c. frontal lobe

 

d. Broca’s area

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

64. Based on what was presented in the textbook about localization, how did researchers in the 1800s go about identifying parts of the brain that are involved in specific behaviors?

 

a. by conducting brain scans

 

b. by examining the brains of people with disrupted behavior after those people died

 

c. by giving thorough examinations to anyone who suffered brain damage

 

d. by recording the electrical activity of individual brain cells while a person completed a task

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

65. Which scientist adopted an extreme view of localization that has not held up to later scientific investigation?

 

a. Paul Broca

 

b. Phineas Gage

 

c. Luigi Galvani

 

d. Franz Gall

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

66. Which theory of brain function involved measuring the bumps on the skull as a means to determine a person’s individual characteristics?

 

a. equipotentiality

 

b. phrenology

 

c. localization

 

d. hydraulic model of nervous system

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

67. Karl Lashley is known for developing the theory of ______, which stated that behaviors arise from equal involvement of all the parts of the brain.

 

a. equipotentiality

 

b. phrenology

 

c. localization

 

d. hydraulic model of nervous system

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

68. Which theory was consistent with the idea of localization?

 

a. equipotentiality

 

b. phrenology

 

c. dualism

 

d. hydraulic model of nervous system

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

69. Which observation has provided support for localization?

 

a. Spurzheim’s measurements of skull bumps correlated with behaviors

 

b. Lashley’s theory of equipotentiality

 

c. Broca’s autopsy of the patient who lost the ability to speak

 

d. Galvani’s animated frog leg

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

70. Which position is consistent with the way that modern-day neuroscientists approach the localization issue?

 

a. They agree with Lashley that the brain has equipotentiality.

 

b. They agree with Gall that even very specific behaviors can be localized to individual brain areas.

 

c. They agree with Broca that language function can be found exclusively in Broca’s area.

 

d. They have adopted the view that cooperation among several brain areas is necessary for behavior.

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

71. Which observation has provided support for localization?

 

a. Phineas Gage’s changes in behavior following the accident that damaged his frontal lobes

 

b. Gall’s 35 faculties of emotion and intellect, which were related to the bumps on a person’s skull

 

c. Helmholtz’s observations of the speed of electrical signals in nerve cells

 

d. Descartes’ hydraulic model of brain function

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

72. The quotation from your textbook “The truth, as is often the case, lies somewhere between these two extremes” describes current understanding of what neuroscience debate?

 

a. the debate between monism and dualism

 

b. the debate between the hydraulic model and electrical signaling for communication in the brain

 

c. the debate between localization and distribution of function in the brain

 

d. the debate about the speed at which electrical signals occur in nerve cells

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

73. What is a concern of modern nonmaterial neuroscientists?

 

a. The brain is not accessible for study.

 

b. Consciousness will not be capable of explanation using material explanations.

 

c. Vision and hearing are too complex to be explained as arising from a material brain.

 

d. Lashley was correct in saying that brain functions are not localized.

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

74. Monism is consistent with the idea that ______.

 

a. many brain functions can be localized somewhat, showing that specific brain regions produce specific behaviors

 

b. electricity moves slowly through nerve cells

 

c. the brain does not produce behaviors such as combativeness

 

d. the mind explains the brain

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

75. When the brain changes in response to psychotherapy, nonmaterial neuroscientists believe that ______ is responsible for the brain changes.

 

a. the brain

 

b. the electrical signal

 

c. the nerves

 

d. the mind

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

76. The nature-versus-nurture question deals with the relative influences of ______ and environment on shaping behavior.

 

a. electricity

 

b. brain

 

c. heredity

 

d. mind

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Nature and Nurture

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

77. What is one concern that has been raised over explaining behaviors with a hereditary cause?

 

a. Heredity removes the mystery in human existence.

 

b. Heredity suggests that anyone can be pushed to engage in bad behavior if given the proper circumstances.

 

c. Heredity leaves no room for choice in behavior.

 

d. Hereditary explanations mean that individuals cannot be held accountable for their bad behaviors.

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Nature and Nurture

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

78. Which of the following statements is true?

 

a. Some genes are found in the mitochondria.

 

b. Every body cell has 23 chromosomes.

 

c. Ova and sperm each contain pairs of chromosomes.

 

d. The sequences of nucleotides that make up our DNA differ among individuals by about 10%.

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

79. The plans for cellular processes are contained within our ______.

 

a. brains

 

b. genes

 

c. environment

 

d. electrical signals

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

80. Which of the following statements about chromosomes is true?

 

a. Genes contain chromosomes.

 

b. Chromosomes are all found in mitochondria.

 

c. Chromosomes contain genes.

 

d. Chromosomes come in groups of three.

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

81. A direct function of genes is ______.

 

a. influencing behavior

 

b. building the brain and nervous system

 

c. directing the building of proteins

 

d. replication

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

82. How many chromosomes are found in cells of the human body?

 

a. 64

 

b. 46

 

c. 44

 

d. 23

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

83. Which of the following is a true statement about the sex chromosomes?

 

a. The Y chromosome is shorter than the X chromosome.

 

b. There are 23 pairs of sex chromosomes.

 

c. Mammalian females have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome.

 

d. Mammalian males have two X chromosomes.

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

84. Which of the following is a true statement about chromosomes?

 

a. Scientists identify individual chromosomes by number.

 

b. Chromosomes are identical in appearance.

 

c. All people have two X chromosomes.

 

d. All people have two Y chromosomes.

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

85. How are sperm cells different from body cells?

 

a. Sperm cells do not contain genes.

 

b. Sperm cells contain 45 chromosomes.

 

c. Sperm cells contain 23 chromosomes.

 

d. Sperm cells contain 12 chromosomes.

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

86. The process of ______ results in a zygote being created with 23 pairs of chromosomes.

 

a. birth

 

b. ovulation

 

c. implantation

 

d. fertilization

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

87. A fertilized egg, which eventually develops into an organism, is initially called a(n) ______.

 

a. embryo

 

b. fetus

 

c. baby

 

d. zygote

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

88. Kathryn recently took a pregnancy test and discovered that she was pregnant. When she went to her doctor for an examination, she discovered that she had been pregnant for 5 weeks. What term do scientists used to refer to the fertilized egg that is developing in Kathryn’s uterus?

 

a. fetus

 

b. embryo

 

c. baby

 

d. infant

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

89. Most pregnant women undergo regular medical evaluations of their pregnancies beginning at 8 weeks after fertilization. At this point in development, the fertilized egg is referred to by scientists as a(n) ______.

 

a. zygote

 

b. embryo

 

c. fetus

 

d. baby

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

90. Female humans have ______.

 

a. two X chromosomes

 

b. two Y chromosomes

 

c. one X and one Y chromosome

 

d. one X chromosome

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

91. Which scientists are known for reporting that DNA is structured in a double helix?

 

a. Fritsch and Hitzig

 

b. Gall and Spurzheim

 

c. Watson and Crick

 

d. Gage and Broca

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

92. Genes are made of ______.

 

a. chromosomes

 

b. deoxyribonucleic acid

 

c. cell bodies

 

d. mitochondria

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

93. What does the “double helix” refer to?

 

a. the location of genes within body cells

 

b. the paired nature of chromosomes in cells of the body

 

c. the twisted ladder-like structure of DNA

 

d. the fact that genes can be found on chromosomes within the cell body and also in mitochondria

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

94. Which of the following is a nucleotide that makes up DNA?

 

a. cytosine

 

b. glutamate

 

c. nyacin

 

d. uracil

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

95. Which of the following is a nucleotide that makes up DNA?

 

a. uracil

 

b. guanine

 

c. GABA

 

d. acetylcholine

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

96. Adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine are nucleotides that make up ______.

 

a. cell bodies

 

b. neurotransmitters

 

c. DNA

 

d. RNA

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

97. The code for our genetic information is carried in which of the following?

 

a. the twisting pattern that our DNA creates

 

b. the speed of electrical signals along strands of DNA

 

c. the number of chromosomes we have in each body cell

 

d. the order of nucleotides on our DNA strands

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

98. Genes provide the instructions for making ______.

 

a. chromosomes

 

b. proteins

 

c. nerve cells

 

d. brains

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

99. Which of the following is a true statement about enzymes in the body?

 

a. Enzymes are coded for by DNA.

 

b. Enzymes are used to build cells in the body.

 

c. Enzymes are found in pairs.

 

d. Enzymes are unique to each individual.

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

100. Chemical reactions in the body can be modified by ______, which are coded for by genes.

 

a. DNA

 

b. chromosomes

 

c. zygotes

 

d. enzymes

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

101. About what percentage of the genes in any two people are identical?

 

a. approximately 75%

 

b. 25% or less

 

c. over 99%

 

d. approximately 50%, depending on race

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

102. Different versions of a gene are called ______.

 

a. nucleotides

 

b. alleles

 

c. polygenic

 

d. chromosomes

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

103. Which of the following is a true statement about genes?

 

a. All chromosomes contain the same number of genes.

 

b. Chromosomes, but not genes, are paired.

 

c. Genes, but not chromosomes, are paired.

 

d. The Y chromosome has fewer genes than the X chromosome.

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

104. Type AB blood is an example of ______.

 

a. two alleles blending to create a result

 

b. one allele that is dominant over another

 

c. one allele that is recessive compared to another

 

d. a homozygous case

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

105. A ______ gene will produce its effect regardless of which gene it is paired with.

 

a. homozygous

 

b. heterozygous

 

c. dominant

 

d. recessive

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

106. A ______ gene will have its effects only when it is paired with a similar gene on the other chromosome.

 

a. polygenic

 

b. heterozygous

 

c. dominant

 

d. recessive

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

107. If a person has different genes for hand clasping preference, they are ______ for that trait.

 

a. homozygous

 

b. heterozygous

 

c. phenotypic

 

d. polygenic

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

108. The specific pattern of genes inherited at conception defines an individual's ______.

 

a. phenotype

 

b. genotype

 

c. genomic imprint

 

d. somatotype

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

109. The observable characteristics of an individual are referred to as one’s ______.

 

a. phenotype

 

b. genotype

 

c. genome

 

d. somatotype

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

110. An example of an X-linked trait is ______.

 

a. hand clasping

 

b. blood type

 

c. red–green color-blindness

 

d. Huntington’s disease

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

111. Keysha’s mother is homozygous for a dominant allele for unattached earlobes and her father is homozygous for a recessive allele for attached earlobes. What is true about Keysha’s earlobes?

 

a. Keysha has a homozygous genotype.

 

b. Keysha’s phenotype is not predictable from her genotype.

 

c. Keysha has attached earlobes.

 

d. Keysha has unattached earlobes.

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

112. Keysha’s mother is homozygous for a dominant allele for unattached earlobes and her father is heterozygous for a recessive allele for attached earlobes. Keysha has two siblings. What of the following is a true statement about Keysha and her siblings?

 

a. Keysha and her siblings will all have the same genotype.

 

b. Keysha and her siblings will all have the same phenotype.

 

c. Keysha and her siblings will all have attached earlobes.

 

d. Keysha, but not her siblings, will have unattached earlobes.

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

113. Most behavioral characteristics and psychological disorders are ______.

 

a. polygenic

 

b. recessive

 

c. dominant

 

d. X-linked

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

114. Why are males more likely than females to have a deficiency in red–green color vision?

 

a. Males have more recessive alleles for color vision.

 

b. Males do not use their color vision as much as females.

 

c. Males only receive one X chromosome.

 

d. Color deficiencies are the result of dominant alleles.

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

115. Neither of Sean’s parents has a red–green color deficiency, but Sean does. Why is this possible?

 

a. Both of Sean’s parents must be heterozygous for the gene for red–green color deficiency.

 

b. Both of Sean’s parents must be homozygous for the dominant allele for red–green color vision.

 

c. Sean’s father must be heterozygous for the gene for red–green color deficiency.

 

d. Sean’s mother must be heterozygous for the gene for red–green color deficiency.

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

116. How do modern psychologists approach the nature-versus-nurture question?

 

a. They feel that both are important to understanding behavior.

 

b. They feel that environment is more important than heredity in understanding behavior.

 

c. They feel that heredity is more important than environment in understanding behavior.

 

d. They feel that environment plays no role in shaping behavior.

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

117. The human characteristic that has been most investigated for its genetic basis is ______.

 

a. personality

 

b. creativity

 

c. intelligence

 

d. criminal behavior

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

118. What was the purpose of the Human Genome Project?

 

a. to determine if genes are linked to human behaviors

 

b. to identify all the genes in our chromosomes

 

c. to determine the structure of DNA

 

d. to find the mitochondria that contain genes

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Human Genome Project

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

119. When did the Human Genome Project take place?

 

a. 1950s

 

b. 1960s

 

c. 1990s

 

d. 2010s

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Human Genome Project

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

120. How long did it take researchers to sequence all of the genes in the human genome?

 

a. 5 years

 

b. 10 years

 

c. 15 years

 

d. 25 years

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Human Genome Project

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

121. Which of the following statements is true about the Human Genome Project?

 

a. The project revealed we have over 100,000 functioning genes.

 

b. An international version of the project was able to identify what most of the genes actually do in the body.

 

c. The project showed that only about 3% of our DNA sequence encodes for proteins.

 

d. It was used to identify the gene for Huntington’s disease.

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Human Genome Project

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

122. About 97% of our DNA does not encode ______.

 

a. proteins

 

b. RNA

 

c. genes

 

d. neurotransmitters

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Human Genome Project

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

123. Which of the following provides support for the idea that the number of protein encoding genes an organism has is not correlated with the organism's complexity?

 

a. Most of our DNA encodes for proteins.

 

b. Humans and chimpanzees have almost the same number of protein-encoding genes.

 

c. “Junk” DNA has no function.

 

d. Humans only have slightly more protein-encoding genes than roundworms.

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Human Genome Project

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

124. An organism’s complexity is ______ the number of its genes.

 

a. correlated with

 

b. not correlated with

 

c. equivalent to

 

d. dependent on

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Human Genome Project

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

125. Which of the following is related to the complexity of an organism?

 

a. the number of genes the organism has

 

b. the number of protein encoding genes an organism has

 

c. the amount of noncoding DNA an organism has

 

d. the length of the chromosomes in an organism

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Human Genome Project

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

126. Some of our noncoding DNA controls ______.

 

a. mutation rate

 

b. gene expression

 

c. RNA expression

 

d. our “junk” DNA

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Human Genome Project

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

127. Why is our non–protein-coding DNA no longer called “junk” DNA?

 

a. 80% of it assists in translating other genes for protein production

 

b. 80% of it is nonfunctional

 

c. 80% of it is just left over from evolutionary selection

 

d. it is not related to behavioral complexity

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Human Genome Project

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

128. What function does the noncoding DNA segment HACNS1 have?

 

a. It turns on genes in the forearm and thumb in humans to promote thumb movement.

 

b. It creates thumbs in chimpanzees.

 

c. It creates thumbs in rhesus monkeys.

 

d. It has no known function.

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Human Genome Project

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

129. What concept is supported by studies of the HACNS1 DNA segment?

 

a. that non–protein-coding DNA is just junk left over from evolution

 

b. that only protein-coding DNA is biochemically active

 

c. that non–protein-coding DNA is most of our DNA

 

d. that non–protein-coding DNA indirectly promotes the creation of important proteins

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Human Genome Project

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

130. The gene that causes Huntington’s disease ______.

 

a. was identified in 1970

 

b. is located on chromosome 4

 

c. will most likely be identified when the Human Genome Project is complete

 

d. will be impossible to locate with the technology that is currently available

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Human Genome Project

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

131. Which of the following is true of marker genes?

 

a. These are genes whose function is known.

 

b. These are genes that are protein coding.

 

c. These are genes that are non–protein coding.

 

d. These are genes whose location is known.

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Human Genome Project

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

132. What information has the Human Genome Project provided to scientists?

 

a. the function of all the genes in humans

 

b. the function of all the genes in mammals

 

c. the location of all the genes in humans

 

d. the evolutionary past of all the genes in humans

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Human Genome Project

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

133. Jordan is a scientist who wants to determine the genes involved in bipolar disorder. How can Jordan use information from the Human Genome Project to assist in this goal?

 

a. Jordan can look up genes that are involved in bipolar disorder symptoms in the Human Genome Project report.

 

b. Jordan can use the Human Genome Project report to identify functions of genes that have been found in relatives of those with bipolar disorder.

 

c. Jordan can use the Human Genome Project report to identify locations of genes that have been found in relatives of those with bipolar disorder.

 

d. Jordan can use the Human Genome Project report to alter the activity of genes involved in bipolar disorder.

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

 

Answer Location: The Human Genome Project

 

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

134. In what order have scientists worked on describing genes in humans?

 

a. They have first identified gene functions and then gene locations.

 

b. They have first identified gene locations and then gene functions.

 

c. They have first identified gene functions and then gene appearance.

 

d. They have first identified gene locations and then gene appearance.

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Human Genome Project

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

135. Which of the following is one way that gene information will be used in the future?

 

a. to treat medical and psychological disorders with genetic intervention

 

b. to treat medical but not psychological disorders

 

c. to treat psychological but not medical disorders

 

d. to diagnose medical but not psychological disorders

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Human Genome Project

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

136. How would the Human Genome Project have been helpful in identifying the gene involved in Huntington’s disease if that information had been available earlier?

 

a. by showing which genes cause Huntington’s disease

 

b. by providing location information for the genes on chromosome 4

 

c. by showing that the marker genes were not involved in Huntington’s disease

 

d. by providing the number of people in a family who would be expected to have the gene for Huntington’s disease

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Human Genome Project

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

137. Which of the following is true about genetic influences on behavior?

 

a. People are clones of their parents and thus destined to exhibit the same behaviors as their parents.

 

b. A person’s future behaviors can be entirely predicted based on the genes they had at birth.

 

c. Even hereditary behaviors show a good deal of diversity, even within families.

 

d. Behavioral genetics is popular because people take comfort in the idea that their behaviors are out of their conscious control.

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-5: Critique the fixed nature of heredity in shaping behavior

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Heredity: Destiny or Predisposition?

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

138. How many genes are shared between children and their parents?

 

a. 99%

 

b. 50%

 

c. 25%

 

d. 5%

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-5: Critique the fixed nature of heredity in shaping behavior

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Genes and Individuality

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

139. Approximately ______ different genetic combinations can be created through sexual reproduction of any two people.

 

a. 23

 

b. 100,000

 

c. 8 million

 

d. 60 trillion

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-5: Critique the fixed nature of heredity in shaping behavior

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Genes and Individuality

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

140. Which of the following is a true statement about natural selection?

 

a. Natural selection means that individuals with more adaptive behaviors will pass on their genes to more offspring.

 

b. Natural selection works to reduce the diversity found in later generations.

 

c. Natural selection has been disproven as the method of evolution.

 

d. Natural selection does not apply to humans.

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-5: Critique the fixed nature of heredity in shaping behavior

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Genes and Individuality

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

141. Which of the following is true of gene activity?

 

a. Once a gene becomes inactive, it remains inactive for the rest of an organism’s life.

 

b. A gene may become active at only a certain time of the life cycle.

 

c. Gene effects are constant over the lifespan.

 

d. Gene activity can be upregulated but not downregulated over the lifespan.

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-5: Critique the fixed nature of heredity in shaping behavior

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Genes and Individuality

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

142. What is the direct impact of a downregulation in gene activity?

 

a. The gene would make less of a protein.

 

b. The gene would disappear from the DNA.

 

c. The gene would not be passed on to offspring.

 

d. The gene would become recessive.

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-5: Critique the fixed nature of heredity in shaping behavior

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Genes and Individuality

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

143. What do researchers think occurs with genes during aging?

 

a. Many genes become recessive.

 

b. Many genes become dominant.

 

c. Existing genes become more or less active.

 

d. Genes lose their ability to be inherited.

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-5: Critique the fixed nature of heredity in shaping behavior

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Genes and Individuality

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

144. What appears to account for the differences between humans and chimpanzees?

 

a. We only share 2–5% of DNA sequences with chimpanzees.

 

b. We are not closely related to chimpanzees.

 

c. The genes in chimpanzees are fixed and ours are not fixed.

 

d. More than 2–5% of our genes differ in expression patterns compared to what is seen in chimpanzees.

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-5: Critique the fixed nature of heredity in shaping behavior

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Genes and Individuality

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

145. Which of the following is a true statement about the DNA of chimpanzees?

 

a. Chimpanzees share less than 90% of DNA sequences with humans.

 

b. Chimpanzees express different genes in their brains than people do.

 

c. Chimpanzees have genes that do not alter their expression patterns based on experience.

 

d. The genes of chimpanzees cannot downregulate their activity.

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-5: Critique the fixed nature of heredity in shaping behavior

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Genes and Individuality

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

146. Which of the following is a true statement about the relationship between disease and genes?

 

a. Only 5% of the people with a mutant form of the huntingtin gene will develop Huntington’s disease.

 

b. Only 50% of the people with a mutant form of the huntingtin gene will develop Huntington’s disease.

 

c. All of the people with a mutant form of the huntingtin gene will develop Huntington’s disease.

 

d. All of the people with a mutant form of a particular gene will develop schizophrenia.

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-5: Critique the fixed nature of heredity in shaping behavior

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Genes and Individuality

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

147. The next (or the first) time you stare eye to eye with a chimpanzee, remember to keep this humbling fact in mind: You and the chimpanzee have ______ identical DNA sequences.

 

a. 90–95%

 

b. 99%

 

c. 95–98%

 

d. 75%

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-5: Critique the fixed nature of heredity in shaping behavior

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Genes and Individuality

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

148. While chimpanzees and humans resemble each other closely in terms of DNA sequences, we do differ dramatically in measures of genetic ______.

 

a. genotype

 

b. regulation

 

c. expression

 

d. makeup

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-5: Critique the fixed nature of heredity in shaping behavior

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Genes and Individuality

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

149. Rob knew the creationist had his facts way, way wrong; human and chimpanzee DNA are divergent only in about ______ of the sequences.

 

a. 1%

 

b. 2–5%

 

c. 10%

 

d. 20%

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-5: Critique the fixed nature of heredity in shaping behavior

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Genes and Individuality

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

150. The proposition that heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely to be passed on to subsequent generations is known as ______.

 

a. natural selection

 

b. genetic advantage

 

c. vulnerability

 

d. heritability

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-5: Critique the fixed nature of heredity in shaping behavior

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Genes and Individuality

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

151. Genetic effects are ______.

 

a. constant over one’s life

 

b. active at some times, inactive at other times

 

c. a constant influence if the environment selects for this

 

d. active in a fixed sequence

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-5: Critique the fixed nature of heredity in shaping behavior

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Genes and Individuality

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

152. ______ is the percentage of the variation in a given characteristic that can be attributed to genetics.

 

a. Inheritance

 

b. Genetic quotient

 

c. Heritability

 

d. Exome

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Heredity, Environment, and Vulnerability

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

153. Heritability estimates range from about ______ for personality to about 80% for schizophrenia.

 

a. 0%

 

b. 10%

 

c. 40%

 

d. 60%

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Heredity, Environment, and Vulnerability

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

154. Which of the following traits has the highest degree of heritability?

 

a. personality

 

b. occupational interest

 

c. schizophrenia

 

d. cancer

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Heredity, Environment, and Vulnerability

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

155. Heritabilities are, on average, higher for behavioral disorders than for ______.

 

a. medical disorders

 

b. mental characteristics

 

c. psychological disorders

 

d. behavioral traits

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Heredity, Environment, and Vulnerability

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

156. The degree of genetic similarity between identical twins is ______.

 

a. 99%

 

b. 50%

 

c. 25%

 

d. 100%

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Heredity, Environment, and Vulnerability

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

157. Which of the following has been concluded from adoption studies of intelligence?

 

a. Genetics is the sole determinant of intelligence.

 

b. The heritability for intelligence has been overestimated in adoption studies.

 

c. Family environment more strongly determines intelligence than genetics does.

 

d. The heritability of intelligence is approximately 90%.

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Heredity, Environment, and Vulnerability

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

158. An individual does not inherit schizophrenia but instead inherits a ______ for becoming schizophrenic.

 

a. destiny

 

b. heritability

 

c. genetic weight

 

d. vulnerability

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Heredity, Environment, and Vulnerability

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

159. Which statement below is true of the vulnerability model?

 

a. The model shows how nature and nurture interact to produce a characteristic or disorder.

 

b. The model has been applied to Huntington’s disease.

 

c. The model states that we inherit destinies rather than dispositions.

 

d. The model cannot be applied to disorders such as schizophrenia.

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Heredity, Environment, and Vulnerability

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

160. We inherit dispositions but not ______.

 

a. genes

 

b. destinies

 

c. chromosomes

 

d. vulnerabilities

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Heredity, Environment, and Vulnerability

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

161. ______ means that genes contribute a predisposition for a disorder that may or may not exceed the threshold to produce the disorder.

 

a. Vulnerability

 

b. Heritability

 

c. Concordance rate

 

d. Expression pattern

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Heredity, Environment, and Vulnerability

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

162. Which of the following techniques is used by scientists to determine the relative influence of genetics and experience on behavioral traits?

 

a. gene mapping

 

b. chromosomal analysis

 

c. the Human Genome Project

 

d. adoption studies

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Heredity, Environment, and Vulnerability

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

163. As far as is known, the only humans who have the same genotype are ______.

 

a. two individuals who look exactly alike

 

b. identical twins

 

c. fraternal twins

 

d. cousins born on the same day

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Heredity, Environment, and Vulnerability

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

164. Kara and Samantha are fraternal twins. Kara is very open to new experiences. What can we determine about Samantha’s personality?

 

a. Samantha is also very open to new experiences.

 

b. Samantha is no more likely to be open to new experiences than any other sibling would be.

 

c. Samantha is not open to new experiences.

 

d. Samantha’s personality will be entirely determined by her environment.

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

 

Answer Location: Heredity, Environment, and Vulnerability

 

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

165. Which of the following statements is consistent with the vulnerability model as applied to mathematical ability?

 

a. If your parents struggled in math classes, you will also struggle in math classes.

 

b. There will be no relationship between your math capabilities and those of your parents.

 

c. If your family members struggled with math classes, then there is no point in you trying to be successful in math classes.

 

d. Your ability to be successful in math classes can be expanded beyond genetic predispositions with good study habits.

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

 

Answer Location: Heredity, Environment, and Vulnerability

 

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

True/False

 

 

 

1. Neuroscientists may be trained in biology, psychology, physiology, anatomy, neurology, chemistry, computer science, or philosophy.

 

Ans: T

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: What is Behavioral Neuroscience?

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

2. The term “behavior” is reserved for overt actions when used by psychologists.

 

Ans: F

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: What is Behavioral Neuroscience?

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

3. Psychology came into existence as a distinct discipline in 1879, when Wundt established the first psychology laboratory.

 

Ans: T

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Origins of Behavioral Neuroscience

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

4. Materialistic monism is the belief that the mind is a phenomenon produced by the workings of the nervous system.

 

Ans: T

 

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the mind-brain problem in behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Prescientific Psychology and the Mind-Brain Problem

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

5. Biological psychologists believe there is little hope that the mind–body question will ever be solved.

 

Ans: F

 

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the mind-brain problem in behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Prescientific Psychology and the Mind-Brain Problem

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

6. Descartes concluded the mind and body interacted in the pituitary gland.

 

Ans: F

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Descartes and the Physical Model of Behavior

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

7. Descartes argued that the inflation of a muscle by a fluid caused movement.

 

Ans: T

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Descartes and the Physical Model of Behavior

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

8. Empiricism is the view that information can be obtained by reasoning alone.

 

Ans: F

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Descartes and the Physical Model of Behavior

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

9. Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig used electrical stimulation of the brain to produce movement.

 

Ans: T

 

Learning Objective: 1-3: Identify the role of physiologists in the establishment of modern-day behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Helmholtz and the Electrical Brain

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

10. Hermann von Helmholtz was the first to accurately measure the speed of conduction in nerves.

 

Ans: T

 

Learning Objective: 1-3: Identify the role of physiologists in the establishment of modern-day behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Helmholtz and the Electrical Brain

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

11. Luigi Galvani identified a region of the brain that he thought was necessary for hearing.

 

Ans: F

 

Learning Objective: 1-3: Identify the role of physiologists in the establishment of modern-day behavioral neuroscience.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Helmholtz and the Electrical Brain

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

12. According to the work done by Helmholtz, the speed of neural conduction is about the same as electricity.

 

Ans: F

 

Learning Objective: 1-3: Identify the role of physiologists in the establishment of modern-day behavioral neuroscience.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Helmholtz and the Electrical Brain

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

13. Paul Broca identified a region of the brain that he thought was necessary for vision.

 

Ans: F

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

14. The case of Phineas Gage provided evidence in support of localization of brain function.

 

Ans: T

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

15. Gall’s theory of phrenology has been supported by modern scientific studies.

 

Ans: F

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

16. Genes have been unequivocally shown to cause behavior.

 

Ans: F

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

17. The Y chromosome is shorter than the X chromosome.

 

Ans: T

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

18. Over 99% of the genes in any two individuals, related or unrelated, are identical.

 

Ans: T

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

19. The gene for Huntington’s disease is located on chromosome 4.

 

Ans: T

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Human Genome Project

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

20. The fact that parent and offspring may differ is evidence against natural selection.

 

Ans: F

 

Learning Objective: 1-5: Critique the fixed nature of heredity in shaping behavior

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Genes and Individuality

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

21. Patterns of gene expression remain constant throughout a person’s life.

 

Ans: F

 

Learning Objective: 1-5: Critique the fixed nature of heredity in shaping behavior

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Genes and Individuality

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

22. Heritability is the percentage of variation in a given characteristic that can be attributed to genetics.

 

Ans: T

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Heredity, Environment, and Vulnerability

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

23. Heritability for schizophrenia ranges from 60% to 90%.

 

Ans: T

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Heredity, Environment, and Vulnerability

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

24. Adoption studies have tended to underestimate the heritability of intelligence.

 

Ans: F

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Heredity, Environment, and Vulnerability

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

25. Psychologists no longer find it useful to talk about nature versus nurture.

 

Ans: T

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Heredity, Environment, and Vulnerability

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

Essay

 

 

 

1. Describe the contributions of the early neuroscience researchers Galvani, Fritsch and Hitzig, and Helmholtz.

 

Ans: These researchers were critical in first identifying that the nervous system communicates using electrical signals. Galvani, in the late 1700s, was able to animate a dead frog’s leg by using an electrical current, first demonstrating that electricity could be used in the body. In the late 1800s, Fritsch and Hitzig applied electrical current to the brains of dogs and found that the dogs’ muscles moved. This took Galvani’s work one step further by showing that an electrical current could produce activity in a living animal. Helmholtz has been the most influential of these early physiologists in measuring the speed at which electrical signals travel in nerve cells (90 feet/second) and showing that this is much slower than the speed of electrical signals that are sent down a wire. Helmholtz set the groundwork for later physiologists by showing how electrical signals in the nervous system function as a biological system.

 

Learning Objective: 1-3: Identify the role of physiologists in the establishment of modern-day behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Helmholtz and the Electrical Brain

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

2. Explain what the mind–brain problem is, including the positions of both materialistic monism and dualism.

 

Ans: The nature of the mind has been at the center of this debate. On one side of the mind–brain problem is the idea that the mind is the product of the brain, and thus is physical, a position called materialistic monism. Monists, in general, believe that there is one thing that controls our behavior rather than two. The other side of this debate states that the mind is not physical and is separate from the brain, a position called dualism. Dualists believe that there are two separate things that control our behavior – the mind, which is not material, and the brain, which is material.

 

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the mind-brain problem in behavioral neuroscience

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Prescientific Psychology and the Mind-Brain Problem

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

3. Discuss the role of models in guiding research, with Descartes’ model as an example.

 

Ans: Models are useful in describing what is known about an area and in stimulating research. Descartes’ hydraulic model was the first model for nervous system functioning. While this model was not accurate, it was important in suggesting a physical basis for behavior – the pineal gland, which supposedly controlled fluid that was sent throughout the body. In addition, the hydraulic model provided ideas that later thinkers and scientists could test empirically.

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Descartes and the Physical Model of Behavior

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

4. Define localization and describe one observation that provided support for this concept.

 

Ans: Localization is the idea that specific behaviors result from the activity of localized brain regions. An extreme view of localization was put forward by Franz Gall with his concept of phrenology, which has not held up to scientific investigations. However, early support for localization came from observations of Phineas Gage, who became erratic in his behavior following an accident that damaged his frontal lobes, and the patient of physician Paul Broca, who lost the ability to produce speech following a stroke that damaged part of the brain that we now refer to as Broca’s area.

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Localization Issue

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

5. Describe one debate that has been historically important in the field of behavioral neuroscience, including the sides of the debate.

 

Ans: Three historically important debates have been the mind–brain (or mind–body problem), the localization versus equipotentiality debate, and the nature versus nurture debate. On one side of the mind–brain problem is the idea that the mind is the product of the brain, and thus is physical, a position called materialistic monism. The other side of this debate states that the mind is not physical and is separate from the brain, a position called dualism. The nature of the mind has been at the center of that debate. The debate regarding localization and equipotentiality centered on whether specific functions could be tied to specific (localized) brain areas or if those functions were a result of the brain as a whole (equipotentiality). The nature versus nurture debate asks about the relative contributions of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture) in shaping our behavior.

 

Learning Objective: 1-2: Describe the contributions of philosophers and scientists to the development of behavioral neuroscience as a field of study or 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Origins of Behavioral Neuroscience

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

6. Distinguish between the terms “dominance” and “recessiveness” and between “heterozygous” and “homozygous,” using the trait of unattached versus attached earlobes.

 

Ans: Dominant alleles are ones that result in a specific phenotype, even if only one copy of the allele is inherited, while recessive alleles only result in a specific phenotype if a dominant allele is not also present. Heterozygous means that two different alleles of a gene are present, while homozygous means that just one allele of a gene is present. Unattached earlobes are controlled by a dominant allele, while attached earlobes are controlled by a recessive allele. This means that a person will show the phenotype of unattached earlobes either when they are homozygous for the dominant allele or when they are heterozygous and have one dominant and one recessive allele. Attached earlobes are controlled by the recessive allele, so a person will only exhibit attached earlobes if they inherit two recessive alleles and thus have a homozygous genotype for earlobe attachment.

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

 

Answer Location: The Genetic Code

 

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

7. Evaluate the impact of the Human Genome Project on modern understanding of the role of genes in behavior. What information has been provided from this endeavor, and what information remains to be discovered?

 

Ans: The Human Genome Project mapped the human genome so that the locations of all genes were identified and listed the base pairs for each gene. However, this project did not determine the functions of the genes. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is now in progress to determine the function of our genes. The Human Genome Project has been an important step in determining the portion of our DNA that encodes for proteins and in locating our genes. Now that the locations of genes are known, researchers can more easily find genes that may be involved in diseases or behaviors.

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Human Genome Project

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

8. Define the term “junk DNA” and explain why this term is no longer considered an appropriate term to describe some portions of the human genome that were studied as part of the Human Genome Project.

 

Ans: One discovery from the Human Genome Project was that 97% of our DNA is made up of non–protein-encoding genes. Those non–protein-encoding genes were considered to be “junk” because they did not encode for proteins, which is the function of genes. However, scientists have discovered that the amount of non–protein-encoding DNA an organism has is related to the complexity of the organism, suggesting that this DNA does have an important function. In addition, approximately 80% of the non–protein-encoding DNA is biochemically active and controls the expression of other genes, which then in turn encode for proteins.

 

Learning Objective: 1-5: Critique the fixed nature of heredity in shaping behavior

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: The Human Genome Project

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

9. Explain why DNA sequences alone cannot account for the differences between humans and other animals, such as chimpanzees.

 

Ans: Humans and chimpanzees have DNA sequences that are 95–98% similar, yet we differ greatly in our behaviors and apparent cognitive capacities. This appears to be because of differences in DNA expression that occur. While genes may be relatively similar across several species, which genes are actively creating proteins differs, even for an individual across his/her lifespan.

 

Learning Objective: 1-5: Critique the fixed nature of heredity in shaping behavior

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Genes and Individuality

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

10. Explain how the vulnerability model relates to the nature-versus-nurture debate in neuroscience.

 

Ans: The nature-versus-nurture debate asks about the relative contributions of heredity and environment in shaping our behavior. While genes are inherited, and thus can reflect the role of nature in influencing our behavior, the vulnerability model describes how most diseases do not result simply from an individual inheriting a specific allele of one gene. For example, a person with a genetic predisposition for schizophrenia may or may not develop schizophrenia, depending on the environmental risks (such as stress or trauma) that they experience. The vulnerability model describes how nurture can impact the extent to which heredity can shape behavior.

 

Learning Objective: 1-4: Compare the relative contributions of genes and environment in the development of behavioral characteristics

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Heredity, Environment, and Vulnerability

 

Difficulty Level: Medium