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Test Bank Discover Sociology 4th Edition William J. Chambliss

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Test Bank Discover Sociology 4th Edition William J. Chambliss

Test Bank Discover Sociology 4th Edition William J. Chambliss

Chapter 1: Discover Sociology

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

1. Which sociologist developed the concept of the sociological imagination?

A. W. E. B. Du Bois

B. Karl Marx

C. C. Wright Mills

D. Max Weber

Ans: C

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

2. C. Wright Mills developed the concept of ______ to recognize connections between personal troubles and public issues.

A. the sociological imagination

B. double consciousness

C. urban sociology

D. feminism

Ans: A

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

3. Which sociological concept uncovers the relationship between personal troubles and public issues?

A. race

B. gender

C. class

D. sociological imagination

Ans: D

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

4. College students who graduated during the height of the recession and were not able to find a job but recognized that it was not due to any fault of their own but to larger structural forces were employing ______.

A. sociology

B. social embeddedness

C. the sociological imagination

D. agency

Ans: C

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

5. Which of the following is not one of the social forces that is ignored in blaming the poor for their poverty and suggesting that they work harder and “pull themselves up by their bootstraps?”

A. racial and ethnic discrimination

B. the outsourcing of manufacturing jobs

C. the dire state of public education in distressed rural and urban areas

D. individual choice or agency

Ans: D

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

6. ______ is the ability of individuals and groups to make social changes on a small and large scale.

A. Structure

B. Agency

C. Power

D. Social control

Ans: B

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

7. Which of the following is most closely associated with the concept of free will?

A. structure

B. agency

C. critical thinking

D. sociological imagination

Ans: B

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

8. Which of the following is the best example of agency?

A. a student’s socioeconomic position

B. the quality of a student’s public high school

C. a student’s race

D. a student’s ability to advocate for himself

ANS: D

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

9. ______ is the pattern of social arrangements that impact agency and are effected by agency.

A. Power

B. Privilege

C. Social control

D. Structure

Ans: D

KEY: Learning Objective: 1-1: Describe the sociological imagination

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

10. Social patterns that impose obstacles on us or afford us opportunities are referred to as ______.

A. structure

B. institutions

C. free will

D. socialization

Ans: A

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

11. Which of the following is the best example of structure?

A. President Barack Obama publicly announcing his support for gay marriage

B. a women’s rights activist marching in a protest

C. a bisexual teenager coming out to his or her friends and family

D. laws against women’s entry into higher education and the paid labor force in the early 1900s

Ans: D

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

12. The relationship between agency and structure is ______, as ______.

A. one-sided; agency influences structure

B. one-sided; structure enables or constrains agency

C. reciprocal; they both have an effect on one another

D. nonexistent; there is no relationship between the two

Ans: C

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

13. Students of parents who are well educated and economically prosperous have a position in the class structure that is ______ while students from poor families with no college background experience a class structure that is ______.

A. enabling; constraining

B. constraining; enabling

C. high; low

D. advantaged; disadvantaged

Ans: A

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

14. ______ is a central part of U.S. culture in which people tend to believe that each person creates his or her life’s path and largely disregards the social context in which this happens.

A. Imagination

B. Individualism

C. Collectivism

D. Racism

Ans: B

KEY: Learning Objective: 1-1: Describe the sociological imagination.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

15. The ability to evaluate claims about truth by using reason and evidence is referred to as ______.

A. critical thinking

B. the sociological imagination

C. deduction

D. common sense

Ans: A

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

16. Which of the following is a characteristic of critical thinking?

A. recognizing weak arguments

B. using anecdotal evidence

C. relying on intuitive thought

D. accepting common truisms

Ans: A

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

17. Critical thinking rejects statements not supported by ______ evidence.

A. sociological

B. empirical

C. anecdotal

D. circumstantial

Ans: B

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

18. The key knowledge to sociological inquiry is to acknowledge ______.

A. all facts

B. opinions

C. inconvenient facts

D. falsehoods

Ans: C

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

19. Which sociologist stated that sociological inquiry is to acknowledge inconvenient facts?

A. W. E. B. Du Bois

B. Karl Marx

C. C. Wright Mills

D. Max Weber

Ans: D

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

20. Which of the following does critical thinking require?

A. accepting all arguments as equally valid

B. being open-minded

C. rejecting inconvenient facts

D. understanding something is true because it is consistent with our beliefs

Ans: B

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

21. Evan is deciding on medical coverage. Which of these possible decisions reflects the use of critical thinking?

A. He goes with the coverage he has had in the past out of convenience.

B. He takes the recommendation of a friend who is in good health.

C. He chooses the most popular coverage option.

D. He examines all options before making a decision.

Ans: D

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

22. Amina rides the NYC subway for the first time and her train breaks down. She tweets about the dismal state of public transportation in New York. Although her frustration is understandable, which of the following rules of critical thinking has she broken?

A. be willing to ask any question, no matter how difficult

B. be willing to admit when you are wrong or uncertain about your results

C. avoid anecdotal evidence

D. think about the assumptions and biases--including your own--that underlie all studies

Ans: C

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

23. Thinking critically involves which of the following?

A. absorbing all of the information that surrounds us

B. becoming pessimistic about the amount of information that surrounds us

C. rejecting the information that surrounds us

D. becoming critical consumers of the information that surrounds us

Ans: C

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

24. What does being critical consumers of information entail?

A. rejecting information posted on social media

B. paying attention to the sources of information we encounter

C. seeking out sources of information that rely on anecdotal evidence

D. avoiding sources of information that tackle controversial topics

Ans: B

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

25. Modern sociological concepts and research methods emerged in the ______ century after the ______ Revolution.

A. 18th; Agricultural

B. 18th; Information

C. 19th; Industrial

D. 19th; Urban

Ans: C

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Development of Sociological Thinking

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

26. Which of the following are considered Enlightenment ideals?

A. equality, liberty, and human rights

B. hard work, prosperity, and power

C. atheism, critical thinking, and logic

D. individualism, intelligence, and intuition

Ans: A

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Development of Sociological Thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

27. Profit-driven manufacturing based in factories replaced small-scale production during ______.

A. urbanization

B. the scientific revolution

C. the industrial revolution

D. the Enlightenment

Ans: C

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Industrial Revolution

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

28. What effect did industrialization have on cities?

A. It made farming obsolete.

B. It improved the quality of life in cities.

C. It encouraged people to move away from cities.

D. It fostered the growth of cities.

Ans: D

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Urbanization: The Population Shift Toward Cities

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

29. Accepted social behaviors and beliefs are referred to as ______.

A. norms

B. culture

C. social status

D. values

Ans: A

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Urbanization: The Population Shift Toward Cities

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

30. People experience ______ when they lose sight of the shared rules and values that give order and meaning to their lives.

A. social statics

B. positivism

C. norms

D. anomie

Ans: D

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Urbanization: The Population Shift Toward Cities

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

31. Durkheim argued that Industrialization would have which of the following effects?

A. Industrialization would reinforce shared culture and norms.

B. Industrialization would cause people to feel less confused and anxious.

C. Industrialization would increase anomie.

D. Industrialization would make city populations more homogenous.

Ans: C

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Urbanization: The Population Shift Toward Cities

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

32. Which 19th-century sociologist is credited with founding sociology?

A. Auguste Comte

B. Harriet Martineau

C. Émile Durkheim

D. Max Weber

Ans: A

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Auguste Comte

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

33. Social ______ refer to the way society is held together.

A. dynamics

B. rules

C. interactions

D. statics

Ans: D

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Auguste Comte

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

34. Social ______ are laws that dictate social change.

A. statics

B. dynamics

C. status

D. facts

Ans: B

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Auguste Comte

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

35. According to Auguste Comte, what does it mean for sociology to be a positivist discipline?

A. It is characterized by abstract speculation.

B. It requires a sociological imagination.

C. It involves critical thinking.

D. It is based on facts alone.

ANS: D

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Auguste Comte

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

36. Auguste Comte argued that society goes through three stages: theological, ______, and positivist.

A. patriarchal

B. industrial

C. metaphysical

D. scientific reasoning

Ans: C

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Auguste Comte

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

37. Harriet Martineau believed for a society to evolve, it must ensure social ______.

A. dynamics

B. cohesion

C. statics

D. justice

Ans: D

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Harriet Martineau

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

38. Émile Durkheim believed that social facts can only be explained by ______.

A. anomie

B. other social facts

C. social justice

D. the sociological imagination

ANS: B

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Harriet Martineau

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

39. Émile Durkheim established the first rules for conducting sociological research and examined the impact of modern society on social ______.

A. solidarity

B. justice

C. dynamics

D. rules

Ans: A

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Émile Durkheim

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

40. With regard to social solidarity, Émile Durkheim’s primary concern was how modern society would be held together without ______ solidarity.

A. normative

B. mental

C. mechanical

D. physical

Ans: C

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Émile Durkheim

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

41. Karl Marx believe that human history should be understood as the product of ______.

A. social cohesion

B. class conflict

C. anomie

D. revolution

Ans: B

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Karl Marx

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

42. Karl Marx condemned the ______’s exploitation of the ______.

A. proletariat; means of production

B. proletariat; bourgeoisie

C. bourgeoisie; collective conscience

D. bourgeoisie; proletariat

Ans: D

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Karl Marx

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

43. Karl Marx made which of the following predictions?

A. The bourgeoisie would grow considerably in size.

B. The ownership of the means of production would come to be less concentrated.

C. Capitalism would lead to a devaluing of technology.

D. Class inequality would ultimately disappear and be replaced by a utopia of equality.

Ans: D

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Karl Marx

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

44. Weber used the method of ______ to understand the meaning of what people say and do.

A. theories

B. rationality

C. anomie

D. Verstehen

Ans: D

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Max Weber

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

45. According to Max Weber, ______ systems produce bureaucracies.

A. traditional

B. informal

C. formally rational

D. interpretive

Ans: C

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Max Weber

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

46. Which of the following did Marx Weber predict?

A. the irrational consequences of the bureaucratization of society

B. the humanization of modern bureaucracies

C. the customer-focused orientation of modern bureaucracies

D. the informal rationality of the bureaucratization of society

Ans: A

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Max Weber

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

47. Robert Ezra Park pioneered the study of which of the following?

A. social cohesion and class conflict

B. feminism and intersectionality

C. formal rationality and bureaucracies

D. urban sociology and race relations

Ans: D

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Robert Ezra Park

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

48. Which of the following istrue of W. E. B. Du Bois?

A. He was a civil rights leader who condemned segregation and the racism of America.

B. He wrote about collective consciousness, an inescapable awareness of being an individual within a society of individuals.

C. His ideas were often considered too mild for sociologists at the time of his writing.

D. His ideas are considered outdated and have been debunked by modern Black sociologists.

Ans: A

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: W. E. B. Du Bois

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

49. Why did it take so long for the work of W. E. B. Du Bois to receive acceptance in the sociological community?

A. His ideas were considered pseudoscientific.

B. His ideas were considered simple.

C. His ideas were considered unoriginal.

D. His ideas were considered too radical.

Ans: D

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: W. E. B. Du Bois

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

50. Sociologist ______ developed the term double consciousness.

A. Robert Ezra Park

B. W. E. B. Du Bois

C. Charlotte Perkins Gilman

D. Robert K. Merton

Ans: B

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: W. E. B. Du Bois

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

51. Sociologist ______ authored the Yellow Wallpaper (1892), a story that highlights women’s lack of autonomy in marriage.

A. Jane Addams

B. Mary Wollstonecraft

C. Charlotte Perkins Gilman

D. Harriet Martineau

Ans: C

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Charlotte Perkins Gilman

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

52. Robert K. Merton is best known for which of the following?

A. his theory of deviance, his work on the sociology of science, and his iteration of the distinction between latent and manifest functions

B. his pioneering of urban sociology and race relations

C. his description of the sociological imagination, the imperative in sociology to see the connection between private and public issues

D. his theories of social and economic organization

Ans: A

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Robert K. Merton

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

53. C. Wright Mills’ concept of the sociological imagination was heavily influenced by the following statement made by ______: “Man makes history, but not under circumstances of his own choosing.”

A. Robert K. Merton

B. W. E. B. Du Bois

C. Karl Marx

D. Max Weber

Ans: C

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: C. Wright Mills

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

54. Which sociologist pioneered the study of Chicago neighborhoods, helping create the field of community studies?

A. W. E. B. Du Bois

B. Jane Addams

C. C. Wright Mills

D. Robert K. Merton

Ans: B

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Women in Early Sociology

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

55. What is a sociological theory?

A. the obvious and intended functions of a phenomenon or institution

B. a logical, rigorous framework for the interpretation of social life that makes particular assumptions and asks particular questions about the social world

C. a law that governs social change

D. a quality of a group that is external to the individual yet constrains his or her thinking and behavior

Ans: B

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What Is Sociological Theory?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

56. ______ paradigms are concerned with social relations and interactions in specific, individual situations.

A. Macro-level

B. Microlevel

C. Symbolic

D. Sociological

Ans: B

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What Is Sociological Theory?

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

57. What is the key question posed by the functionalist perspective?

A. What are the functions of an institution or phenomenon that are not recognized or expected?

B. Who benefits from the way social institutions and relationships are structured? Who loses?

C. What function does a particular institution, phenomenon, or social group serve for the maintenance of society?

D. How do people acquire a sense of who they are through interaction with others?

Ans: C

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What Is Sociological Theory?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

58. Talcott Parsons argued that men were socialized into instrumental roles to be rational workers, whereas women were socialized into expressive roles to be emotional and sensitive caretakers. Which perspective does this statement reflect?

A. symbolic interactionism

B. the social conflict paradigm

C. structural functionalism

D. feminism

Ans: C

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Functionalist Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

59. Which of the following is a critique of structural functionalism?

A. It emphasizes conflict and competition.

B. It seeks to explain the functions of various social structures.

C. It recognizes manifest functions as well as latent functions.

D. It justifies inequality.

Ans: D

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Functionalist Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

60. Which of the following is a latent function of war?

A. to vanquish an enemy

B. to defend territory

C. to increase profits of military contractors

D. to expand territory

Ans: C

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Functionalist Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

61. How would Merton view the rise in popularity of a mayor after a natural disaster?

A. as a manifest function based on his duty to care for the residents

B. as a manifest function based on his hard work and care for the injured

C. as a latent function based on his intention of keeping everyone safe

D. as a latent function based on his hard work to keep everyone safe

Ans: D

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Functionalist Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

62. Elementary schools serve as childcare institutions, allowing more parents to participate in the workforce. Which perspective does this statement reflect?

A. symbolic interactionism

B. the social conflict paradigm

C. structural functionalism

D. feminism

Ans: C

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Functionalist Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

63. How would Marx propose power is distributed?

A. The wealthy act to maintain power.

B. The working class has the highest population and most power.

C. The proletariat holds most power and wealth through inheritance.

D. The bourgeoisie work to gain power from the proletariat.

Ans: A

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Social Conflict Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

64. Which is a characteristic of class conflict?

A. conflict between workers for more overtime

B. companies competing with each other over profit

C. capitalists keeping wealth from workers

D. the proletariat maintaining wealth and power

Ans: C

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Social Conflict Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

65. Which of the following is not characteristic of conflict theory?

A. explains social organization in terms of conflict and competition

B. can be used to understand class, gender, and racial inequality

C. addresses the question of who benefits and who loses in a given situation

D. focuses on microlevel interactions

Ans: D

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Social Conflict Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

66. Conservative politicians oppose gun control reform because they receive contributions from wealthy progun lobbyists. Which perspective does this statement reflect?

A. symbolic interactionism

B. the social conflict paradigm

C. structural functionalism

D. feminism

Ans: B

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Social Conflict Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

67. How might a conflict theorist explain the marginalization of female sociologists and theorists, especially African American females?

A. a lack of education and scientific knowledge

B. a historical legacy of discrimination based on gender and race

C. an economical need for women to remain in the home

D. a failure of women to seek positions of power

Ans: B

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Social Conflict Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

68. Which of the following is a characteristic of symbolic interactionism?

A. It is a macro-level paradigm.

B. Many of the ideas originated with C. Wright Mills.

C. Structural context is considered more important than microlevel processes.

D. People understand themselves through their interaction with others.

Ans: D

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Symbolic Interactionism

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

69. Which perspective focuses on the labels and meanings we place on things such as the wink of an eye?

A. feminism

B. the social conflict paradigm

C. structural functionalism

D. symbolic interactionism

Ans: D

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Symbolic Interactionism

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

70. Which of the following is characterized as an ability to succeed with plans in spite of resistance by others?

A. power

B. anomie

C. inequality

D. conflict

Ans: A

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify the three main themes of this book.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension | Knowledge

Answer Location: Power and Inequality

Difficulty Level: Medium | Easy

 

71. How has globalization impacted social diversity?

A. Greater contact leads to greater diversity.

B. Competition for trade has led to ethnocentrism.

C. Differences become more pronounced as nationalism increases.

D. Groups become more polarized.

Ans: A

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify the three main themes of this book.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Globalization and Diversity

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

72. An American who believes that sexism does not exist in U.S. culture, but is horrified by arranged marriages and the treatment of women in other cultures is practicing ______.

A. globalization

B. ethnocentrism

C. social diversity

D. the sociological imagination

Ans: B

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify the three main themes of this book.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Globalization and Diversity

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

True/False

 

1. The sociological imagination helps us examine history and biography together.

Ans: T

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

2. Agency can transform structure.

Ans: T

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

3. The choices we make as individuals have no effect on larger economic, political, and cultural structures.

Ans: F

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

4. With critical thinking, it is important to avoid sensitive subjects and debates.

Ans: F

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

5. Critical thinkers examine common knowledge rather than accepting it as fact.

Ans: T

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

6. Karl Marx believed capitalism would disappear and be replaced by a utopian society of equality.

Ans: T

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Karl Marx

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

7. Gilman and Weber first described the concept of double consciousness.

Ans: F

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: W. E. B. Du Bois

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

8. Latent functions and manifest functions yield the same outcomes in institutions.

Ans: F

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Functionalist Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

Short Answer

 

1. Explain the concept of the sociological imagination. Choose a particular phenomenon that could be understood as a private trouble and explain it in terms of public issues.

Ans: Varies. The sociological imagination is the ability to grasp the relationship between individual lives and the larger social forces that shape them.

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

2. Discuss the bootstrap mentality and why it is a misnomer in the United States.

Ans: The idea that everyone can pull themselves up by their bootstraps is reflective of the U.S. value of individualism. This is the idea that if you work hard then you will automatically be rewarded regardless of your race, class, gender, or sexual orientation. The bootstrap mentality does not look at larger social structures’ impact on people. Using the sociological imagination helps us better understand that the bootstrap mentality is flawed.

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

3. One of the rules of critical thinking is to think about the assumptions and biases that may underlie a study. Imagine you are conducting a study that examines the relationship between race and income. Identify how your own assumptions and biases might come into play.

Ans: Varies.

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

4. Discuss why anecdotal evidence should be avoided when using critical thinking skills.

Ans: Anecdotal evidence should not be used when thinking critically about an issue because the example provided could be an expectation and not the rule. Therefore, it is important to use logic and empirical evidence.

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

5. Discuss why it is important to not overlook our biases and assumptions.

Ans: Varies. We must acknowledge our assumptions and biases when using critical thinking skills. If we do not, then we might seek out information that supports our arguments and ignores evidence that contradicts it. We may be using the evidence that we received to draw conclusions on a topic that are unsound.

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

6. Identify and define Comte’s three stages of society.

Ans: The first stage is a theological one, in which explanations of the world are framed in terms of superstition, imagination, and religion. The second stage is a metaphysical one, characterized by abstract speculation but framed by the basic belief that society was the product of natural rather than supernatural forces. The third and last stage is positivist, one in which knowledge is based on scientific reasoning “from the facts.”

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Auguste Comte

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

7. Define the term bureaucracy and illustrate it with an example.

Ans: Varies. Bureaucracies are formal organizations characterized by written rules, hierarchical authority, and a paid staff, intended to promote organizational efficiency.

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Max Weber

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

8. Explain W. E. B. Du Bois’s idea of double consciousness.

Ans: Double consciousness is an awareness of oneself both as American and as Black, never free of racial stigma.

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: W. E. B. Du Bois

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

9. In what way is functionalism considered conservative?

Ans: Functionalism is considered conservative because it accepts rather questions the status quo. Unlike the social conflict paradigm, the functionalist paradigm doesn’t ask whether an institution or phenomenon might benefit one group at the expense of another.

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Functionalist Perspective

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

10. Define power and inequality. Explain the relationship between the two.

Ans: Power is the ability to mobilize resources and achieve goals despite the resistance of others. Inequality refers to differences in wealth, power, opportunity, and other valued resources.

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify the three main themes of this book.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Power and Inequality

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

Essay

 

1. Define agency and structure as sociological concepts and explain the differences between them. Using an example, illustrate and describe the relationship between agency and structure.

Ans: Agency: the ability of individuals and groups to exercise free will and to make social change, whether on a small or large scale. Structure: patterned social arrangements that have an effect on agency. Structure may enable or constrain social action. We all have the ability to make choices and exercise free will, but the structures that surround us impose obstacles or present opportunities for us. The choices we make may be enabled or constrained by structure. Reciprocal relationship: structure affects agency, agency can change the dimensions of structure. Example varies.

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

2. The text outlines six simple rules for critical thinking (as outlined by Wade & Tavris, 1997). Choose at least three of these rules and discuss why they are important when conducting a sociological study.

Ans: Varies. Choice of rules and discussion will vary but should include at least three of the following: (1) Be willing to ask any question, no matter how difficult, (2) think logically, and be clear, (3) back up your arguments with evidence, (4) think about the assumptions and biases--including your own--that underlie all studies, (5) avoid anecdotal evidence, and (6) be willing to admit when you are wrong or uncertain about your results.

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

3. Discuss the views of Harriet Martineau on women’s experience in marriage and enslaved Black people in the United States.

Ans: Martineau treated slavery and women’s experience of dependence in marriage as indicators of the limits of the moral development of the United States. In her view, the United States was unable to achieve its full social potential while it was morally stunted by persistent injustices such as slavery and women’s inequality.

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Harriet Martineau

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

4. Discuss how the scientific revolution, the Enlightenment, the industrial revolution, and urbanization each played a role in the development of sociological thinking.

Ans: Should include some of the following details: The Enlightenment: 18th-century philosophers believed humankind could attain new heights by applying scientific understanding to human affairs. Ideals such as equality, liberty, and fundamental human rights. Belief that sociological understanding would create a more egalitarian, peaceful society in which individuals would be free to realize their full potential. Shared hope that a fairer and more just society would be achieved through the scientific understanding of society. The industrial revolution: traditional agricultural economies and the small-scale production of handicrafts in the home gave way to more efficient, profit-driven manufacturing based in factories. Rapid social change, growing inequality, sociologists sought to gain a social scientific perspective on what was happening and how it had come about. Urbanization: industrialization fostered the growth of cities, as people moved from rural fields to urban factories in search of work. Early industrial cities characterized by pollution and dirt, crime, and crowded housing tenements. In Europe, early sociologists lamented the passing of communal village life and its replacement by a savage and alienating urban existence.

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Development of Sociological Thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

5. Explain the relationship between urbanization and capitalism. Include a brief discussion of Marx’s ideas about capitalism.

Ans: Varies. Urbanization means a higher concentration of people in cities, which means it is easier to exploit mass numbers of workers at once. It also means a bigger supply of cheap labor.

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Urbanization: The Population Shift Toward Cities

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

6. Define the terms anomie and norms and explain the relationship between the two concepts. Identify one social problem or issue that could arise because of anomie.

Ans: Varies. Norms are accepted social behaviors and beliefs. Anomie is a state of normlessness that occurs when people lose sight of the shared rules and values that give order and meaning to their lives. When communities undergo rapid change, they lose their norms, and anomie occurs.

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Urbanization: The Population Shift Toward Cities

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

7. Explain the difference between a macro-level paradigm and a microlevel paradigm and provide an example of each.

Ans: Macro-level paradigms are concerned with large-scale patterns and institutions (structural functionalism and social conflict). Microlevel paradigms are concerned with social relations and interactions in specific, individual situations (symbolic interactionism).

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: What Is Sociological Theory?

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

8. Discuss the marginalization of women sociologists and theorists and sociologists of color--in particular, African Americans--from the field of sociology. Discuss how a conflict theorist might explain this marginalization.

Ans: Varies. Include historical legacy of discrimination based on gender and race. Include examples such as W. E. B. Du Bois and Harriet Martineau.

Answer Location: The Social Conflict Paradigm

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Social Conflict Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

9. Identify a social problem or issue. Explain this phenomenon using a symbolic interactionist approach or lens. Include specific theories and concepts.

Ans: Varies. Should include discussion of social interactions based on language and other symbols.

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Symbolic Interactionism

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

10. Define globalization. Identify three effects of globalization and how these effects can either be positive or negative for local or national communities.

Ans: Varies. Globalization is the process by which people all over the planet become increasingly interconnected economically, politically, culturally, and environmentally.

KEY: Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify the three main themes of this book.

REF: Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Globalization and Diversity

Difficulty Level: Medium