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Test Bank The Psychology of Sex and Gender 2nd Edition by Jennifer Bosson

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Test Bank The Psychology of Sex and Gender 2nd Edition by Jennifer Bosson

Test Bank The Psychology of Sex and Gender 2nd Edition by Jennifer Bosson

 

Chapter 1: Introducing Sex and Gender

 

Test Bank

 

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

1. Which of the following is an example of the pushback in recent years regarding sex and gender equality?

 

A. Laverne Cox became the first openly transgender person to win an Emmy award.

 

B. The United Nations endorsed an initiative called “Planet 50-50 by 2030: Step It Up for Gender Equality.”

 

C. The Me Too Movement went viral on Twitter.

 

D. A ban on transgender people serving openly in the military was reinstated.

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Sex and Gender

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

2. Rhoda Unger (1979) argued for using “sex” to refer to the ______ aspects of being female or male while “gender” should be used when discussing the ______ aspects.

 

A. culturally constructed; biological

 

B. hormonal; culturally constructed

 

C. biological; culturally constructed

 

D. anatomical; hormonal

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Sex and Gender

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

3. To address the ambiguity of biological and social causes of sex differences, Alice Eagly (2013) suggests using “sex” to refer to ______ and “gender” to ______.

 

A. categories of people; the meanings given to different sex categories

 

B. culturally constructed differences; biological differences

 

C. biological categories; social meaning given to those categories

 

D. a chosen social identity; a category given to you at birth

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Sex and Gender

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

4. Using “sex” to refer to biological differences between men and women and “gender” to refer to the culturally constructed differences is problematic for which of the following reasons?

 

A. Biology has too small of an influence to warrant its own term.

 

B. It overemphasizes the role of socialization and cultural forces.

 

C. It is difficult to pinpoint the precise influence of biology and culture in sex differences.

 

D. The terms sex and gender fail to account for issues related to intersectionality.

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Sex and Gender

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

5. Researchers have found that testosterone ______.

 

A. is stable and generally insensitive to social events

 

B. increases during competition but only for men

 

C. decreases when women perform male-typed behaviors

 

D. decreases when men perform female-typed behaviors

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1.2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Sex and Gender

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

6. Research shows that differences in physical aggression between men and women are ______.

 

A. due to hormonal differences, such as higher levels of testosterone in men

 

B. primarily caused by differences in brain structure arising from the presence of androgen during fetal development

 

C. caused by men being socialized to be risky and to direct negative emotion outward

 

D. most likely caused by some mixture of biological and social factors

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1.2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Sex and Gender

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

7. Which of the following do sex binaries accomplish?

 

A. communicating the variety in the biological components of sex

 

B. streamlining social interactions

 

C. allowing for the full expression of gender identity

 

D. fostering complexity in social institutions

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1.2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

 

Answer Location: The Sex and Gender Binaries

 

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

8. Around what percent of infants are born with some form of intersexuality?

 

A. 2%

 

B. 5%

 

C. 10%

 

D. 20%

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1.2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Sex and Gender Binaries

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

9. Intersexuality refers to instances where ______.

 

A. gender identity transcends multiple sex categories

 

B. people feel sexual attraction to others regardless of their gender identity

 

C. biological components of sex do not fit the typical male/female pattern

 

D. there is a mismatch between anatomical and psychological gender

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer location: The Sex and Gender Binaries

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

10. Strict sex and gender binaries are ______.

 

A. observed in all cultures across the world

 

B. oversimplified categorical structures people impose on society

 

C. reflections of the simple biological facts of sex

 

D. necessary to maintain social order

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1.2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Our (Interdisciplinary) Psychological Approach

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

11. For transgender individuals, there exists ______

 

A. no sense of belonging to any category of sex

 

B. a mismatch between the sex they are assigned at birth and their psychological gender

 

C. a match between the sex they are assigned birth and gender to which they feel they belong

 

D. a sense of belonging to both categories of sex

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Gender Identity

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

12. Categories such as heterosexual, gay, and lesbian refer to ______ whereas categories such as cisgender, transgender, and genderqueer refer to ______.

 

A. sex; gender

 

B. biological identities; cultural identities

 

C. sexual orientation; gender identities

 

D. group identities; individual identities

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Gender Identity

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

13. People who do not feel a sense of belonging to any category of sex are referred to as ______.

 

A. cisgender

 

B. transgender

 

C. agender

 

D. pangender

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Gender Identity

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

14. ______ refers to an individuals’ psychological experience of their gender.

 

A. Sex

 

B. Gender identity

 

C. Sexual identity

 

D. Gender orientation

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Gender Identity

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

15. Which of the following is most characteristic of a person who is gender fluid?

 

A. shifting among female, male, and third gender identities

 

B. unusual fluctuations in hormones associated with masculine and feminine behavior

 

C. changes in which gender they feel sexually attracted to

 

D. never having any clear gender identity at any given time

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Gender Identity

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

16. Which of the following is TRUE according to Janet Spence’s multifactorial theory of gender identity?

 

A. The variety of roles, traits, and attitudes that shape gender identity are independent/uncorrelated.

 

B. There are a narrow set of different ways gender attributes group together.

 

C. Most people struggle to develop a basic sense of belongingness to their biological sex.

 

D. It is common to discount gender-typical traits and emphasize gender-atypical traits.

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Gender Identity

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

17. Which of the following BEST represents an intersectional perspective?

 

A. studying how women are affected by sexism

 

B. examining differences between women and men

 

C. examining how young men are impacted by ageism

 

D. researching Black women’s experiences of both racism and sexism

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

 

Answer Location: Intersectionality

 

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

18. Cole (2009) encourages psychologists to adopt a more intersectional approach when conducting research by taking which of the following steps?

 

A. ignore who they are including or excluding in their studies

 

B. consider the role of structural inequalities in shaping participants’ experiences

 

C. look for differences in participants’ experiences, despite their shared identities

 

D. isolate specific categories under study, such as only sex or race

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Intersectionality

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

19. Which of the following terms refers to possessing high levels of both masculine and feminine traits?

 

A. genderqueer

 

B. gender fluid

 

C. pansexual

 

D. androgynous

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Masculinity and Femininity

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

20. Some social understandings of sex and gender show a great deal of cultural variability, such as ______.

 

A. the tendency to view women as more warm, moral, and appearance oriented

 

B. the acceptance of patriarchal versus matriarchal societies

 

C. stereotypes of men as more physically aggressive

 

D. the acceptability of third sex/gender options

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1.2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Complexity and Change

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

21. Which of the following is TRUE of the history of acceptance of nonbinary categories of sex and gender in Western cultures?

 

A. Nine U.S. states recognize a nonbinary gender status on driver’s licenses.

 

B. In Western cultures, people who are born intersex are typically assigned to a third gender category.

 

C. Australia remains the only developed nation to recognize a third gender option.

 

D. Western cultures have historically been more open to nonbinary gender options than non-Western cultures.

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1.2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Complexity and Change

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

22. Sex and gender are ______ or mental frameworks through which people process their social worlds.

 

A. schemas

 

B. scripts

 

C. stereotypes

 

D. prejudices

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Complexity and Change

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

23. Which of the following have researchers studying gender and culture found?

 

A. People associate books more with men and film more with women.

 

B. Across cultures, certain foods, such as red meat, are considered more masculine.

 

C. The number 2 is considered more masculine than number 1.

 

D. People in the United States tend to associate red with boys.

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1.2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Ubiquity and Invisibility

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

24. Which group would be least likely to recognize the influence of sex and gender in daily life?

 

A. cisgender men

 

B. Black women

 

C. people who are genderqueer

 

D. transgender men

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1.2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

 

Answer Location: Ubiquity and Invisibility

 

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

25. Privilege refers to ______.

 

A. group status earned legitimately

 

B. social efforts to increase opportunities for marginalized groups

 

C. advantage that stems from favorable personality traits

 

D. automatic, unearned advantage that accompanies certain groups

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Ubiquity and Invisibility

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

26. Which of the following fits with sociologist Judith Lorber’s (1994) suggestions for combating dominant gender norms?

 

A. campaigns to ask female actors more substantive questions rather than focusing on looks and sexuality

 

B. efforts to increase diversity in science and technology fields

 

C. spending less time interviewing male athletes

 

D. attempts to rebrand feminism in order to avoid negative stereotypes

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1.2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

 

Answer Location: Ubiquity and Invisibility

 

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

27. One research study by Case et al. (2014) found that exposing participants to videotaped discussions of male and heterosexual privilege had what effect?

 

A. prompted men to become more defensive and less open to notions of male privilege

 

B. caused women and sexual minorities to become even more aware of group-based privilege but had no effect upon men

 

C. unconsciously made men less likely to employ automatic stereotypes

 

D. reduced sexist attitudes and increases motivation to avoid prejudice

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Ubiquity and Invisibility

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

28. Which of the following is an example of cisgender privilege?

 

A. You can reasonably assume that you will be able to physically access a building.

 

B. You can use public restrooms without much thought, fear of verbal abuse, or arrest.

 

C. You can expect that the people you interact with on a daily basis will speak the same language as you.

 

D. A decision to hire you won’t be based on whether an employer thinks you will be having children soon.

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

29. Which of the following is an example of a matrilineal society?

 

A. a society in which men rule the society and how it operates

 

B. a society in which women rule the society and how it operates

 

C. a society in which family relationships and ancestry are traced through the mother’s line

 

D. a society in which women have more power, but family relationships and ancestry are passed through the father’s line

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1.2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Ubiquity and Invisibility

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

30. Which is TRUE regarding the role sex and gender have played in historically shaping societies?

 

A. Societies in which men tend to hold more of the political and decision-making power are rare.

 

B. There is evidence of several matriarchal societies in human history.

 

C. Very few societies trace family history through the mothers’ rather than the fathers’ line.

 

D. There are many societies that are both matrilineal and patriarchal.

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Structures of Power and Inequality

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

31. Equality refers to treating everyone ______ while equity refers to treating everyone ______.

 

A. the same; differently based on group needs and disadvantages

 

B. differently based on group needs and disadvantages; so that they all have the same outcome

 

C. so that they all have the same outcome; so that they all have the same opportunities

 

D. so that they all have the same outcome; the same

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Structures of Power and Inequality

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

32. A local school initiates a school lunch program that provides financial assistance to students based upon need, with poorer students receiving more financial assistance. The structure of this policy represents the principles of ______.

 

A. redistribution

 

B. intersectionality

 

C. equity

 

D. equality

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

 

Answer Location: Structures of Power and Inequality

 

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

33. Which of the following statements BEST describes how Linda Nicholson (2010) would describe the progress of the women’s movement?

 

A. The women’s movement in the United States occurred in three waves.

 

B. The women’s movement in the United States can be represented by an ever-flowing river.

 

C. The women’s movement is punctuated by a series of three major events.

 

D. The women’s movement began after the 1960s.

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Women’s Movements

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

34. The study of gender psychology first gained traction ______.

 

A. in 1879 when William Wundt founded the first psychology lab

 

B. during the Women’s suffrage movement of the early 1900s

 

C. in response to large numbers of women entering the workforce during World War II

 

D. during the second wave of the women’s movement in the 1970s

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Introducing Sex and Gender

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

35. A key theme in the third wave of the women’s movement is ______.

 

A. a rejection of the idea that all women experience a common oppression

 

B. further inclusivity, extending to concern over men’s issues

 

C. a move toward collecting more qualitative data that better captures the experiences of women

 

D. a focus on women living in the rural south

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Women’s Movements

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

36. Which of the following is TRUE of feminism?

 

A. Young people are often eager to identify as feminists because they espouse its core beliefs.

 

B. Feminist identities have largely remained constant throughout the women’s movements.

 

C. Early waves of feminism focused strongly on intersectionality.

 

D. It’s core goal is social, political, and economic equality among men and women.

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Feminisms

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

37. Which of the following is one of the three ways mentioned for feminisms to remain viable and healthy?

 

A. increase efforts to attract supporters and reduce people’s aversion to identify as feminists

 

B. be more inclusive of men

 

C. endorse more traditional and commonplace conceptions of femininity

 

D. focus on the needs of older generations

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Feminisms

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

38. People tend to stereotype feminists as ______.

 

A. sad and depressed

 

B. empathetic if male

 

C. tolerant and inclusive

 

D. radical and uncooperative

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Feminisms

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

39. Men’s movements have typically ______.

 

A. focused on promoting men’s authority and denouncing same-sex relationships

 

B. been grounded in Christianity

 

C. been pro-feminist

 

D. taken a variety of forms

 

Ans: D

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Men’s Movements

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

40. Men and masculinity scholars have developed new theories often focusing on ______.

 

A. how men are strategic oppressors of women in society

 

B. the biological differences between men and women

 

C. the destructive aspects of the traditional male gender role for men’s health

 

D. how men are more disadvantaged than women in society

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Men’s Movements

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

41. What event was key in prompting the American Psychiatric Association to remove homosexuality from its classification as a psychological disorder from the DSM-II?

 

A. political pressure from left-wing senators

 

B. the discovery of a “gay gene,” the presence of which predicted sexual orientation with incredible accuracy

 

C. a study showing no differences in psychological adjustment between heterosexual and gay participants

 

D. the acceleration of the gay rights movement during the 1980s

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Gay Rights Movement

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

42. Researchers have found that therapies attempting to change sexual orientation are ______.

 

A. unsafe, ineffective, and unethical

 

B. psychologically harmless but not effective

 

C. effective at changing sexual orientation but at a great psychological toll

 

D. effective and safe

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Gay Rights Movements

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

43. Gender dysphoria refers to ______.

 

A. the condition of being transgender

 

B. distress arising from a conflict between gender identity and gender assigned by others

 

C. having multiple gender identities that are salient at different times

 

D. having no sense of gender identity whatsoever

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Transgender Movement

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

44. Which of the following characterizes each of the movements discussed in Chapter 1?

 

A. Each has progressed from a broad set of goals to a narrower focus.

 

B. A common pattern is the push for greater inclusivity.

 

C. The radicalization of the ideologies represented.

 

D. Most have ignored the perspective of majority and high-status groups.

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Where Are We Now? Inclusivity and Intersectionality

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

45. Which is TRUE of a mixed method approach to research?

 

A. the use of qualitative over quantitative data

 

B. an increased focus on social phenomenon

 

C. the incorporation of multiple worldviews in understanding a topic

 

D. It’s been shown to have higher replication rates.

 

Ans: C

 

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Our (Interdisciplinary) Psychological Approach

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

46. Psychologists generally conduct their work at the ______ level.

 

A. individual

 

B. cross-cultural

 

C. societal

 

D. cross-historical

 

Ans: A

 

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Our (Interdisciplinary) Psychological Approach

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

47. According to Carole Wade (2008), critical thinking consists of several mental practices including which of the following?

 

A. embracing emotional reasoning

 

B. considering other ways of interpreting the findings

 

C. looking for information that confirms your prior beliefs

 

D. accepting underlying assumptions

 

Ans: B

 

Learning Objective: 1.4: Demonstrate how to approach the textbook material in “critical thinking mode.”

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Our (Interdisciplinary) Psychological Approach

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

True/False

 

 

 

1. Hormonal differences between men and women are stable and insensitive to social events.

 

Ans: F

 

Learning Objective: 1.2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Sex and Gender

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

2. Until recently, there has been no record of cultures recognizing more than two sexes and genders.

 

Ans: F

 

Learning Objective: 1.2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Sex and Gender Binaries

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

3. More current conceptualizations of gender include a wider range of possible gender identities.

 

Ans: T

 

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Gender Identity

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

4. One of the main points of intersectionality is to recognize women as a uniform group.

 

Ans: F

 

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Intersectionality

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

5. Psychological androgyny refers to the possession of high levels of both masculine (or male-typed) and feminine (or female-typed) attributes.

 

Ans: T

 

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Masculinity and Femininity

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

6. Some individuals prefer that others use gender-neutral pronouns instead of she or he when referring to them.

 

Ans: T

 

Learning objective: 1.2 Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Gender Identity

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

7. The influence of gender in our everyday lives is often subtle and outside of awareness.

 

Ans: T

 

Learning Objective: 1.2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Ubiquity and Invisibility

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

8. It is easiest for members of high-status groups (e.g., White men) to see the privileges of their own group status.

 

Ans: F

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

 

Answer Location: Ubiquity and Invisibility

 

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

9. Cisgender and transgender individuals can have any sexual orientation.

 

Ans: T

 

Learning Objective: 1.2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Sexual Orientation

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

10. The final country to give women the right to vote was Saudi Arabia in 2015.

 

Ans: T

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Women’s Movements

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

11. Since the earliest waves of women’s movements, feminism has included considerations for factors such as race and class.

 

Ans: F

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Feminisms

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

12. Men’s movements have typically been grounded in religion and traditional values.

 

Ans: F

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Men’s Movements

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

13. Currently, the American Psychiatric Association only diagnoses people with gender dysphoria if they experience clinical levels of distress.

 

Ans: T

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: The Transgender Movement

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

14. Contemporary feminisms emphasize intersectionality.

 

Ans: T

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Where Are We Now? Inclusivity and Intersectionality

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

15. A key component of critical thinking is to ask yourself, “How can I make this new information consistent with my preexisting beliefs?”

 

Ans: F

 

Learning Objective: 1.4: Demonstrate how to approach the textbook material in “critical thinking mode.”

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Our Challenge to You: Critical Thinking

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

Short Answer

 

 

 

1. How do Alice Eagly (2013), as well as the textbook, suggests using the term sex and gender?

 

Ans: Alice Eagly suggests using “sex” to refer to male, female, and intersex as categories or groups of people. She recommends using “gender” to refer to the meanings that people give to the different sex categories.

 

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Sex and Gender

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

2. Briefly explain the differences in gender identity across cisgender, transgender, and agender individuals.

 

Ans: For people who are cisgender, there is a mismatch between the sex they are assigned at birth and the gender with which they feel a sense of belonging. For transgender, individuals there is a mismatch between their assigned and psychological sense of gender. Agender individuals do not feel a sense of belonging to any sex category.

 

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Gender Identity

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

3. Discuss one positive aspect and one criticism of the second wave of feminism.

 

Ans: Positive: Expanded the focus to include domestic violence, sexual harassment, pay equality, and reproductive rights. New research was also devoted to sex and gender. Criticism: Came primarily from white middle-class women and focused too exclusively on gender, ignoring other pressing issues such as race and class.

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Women’s Movements

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

4. Explain the distinction between equality and equity.

 

Ans: Equality entails treating everyone the same, regardless of background or differences. Equity entails treating everyone fairly by taking background information and group differences into account.

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Structures of Power and Inequality

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

5. Briefly describe the social issues that were at the forefront of each of the three waves of the women’s movement.

 

Ans: First wave: economic and voting rights for women. Second wave: prompted by the dissatisfaction felt by women in the 1950s and 1960s when their lives were restricted to the roles of housewives and mothers, this wave expanded its focus to issues such as domestic violence, sexual harassment, equal pay, and reproductive rights. Third-wave: intersectionality and issues related to race, class, sexual orientation, and gender identity.

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Women’s Movements

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

6. What scientific finding prompted the American Psychiatric Association to remove homosexuality from its classification as a psychological disorder?

 

Ans: Evelyn Hooker’s (1957) study showing no difference in psychological adjustment between heterosexual and gay male participants.

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

 

Answer Location: Gay Rights Movements

 

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

Essay

 

 

 

1. Describe two reasons why it may be problematic to use the term sex to refer to the biological aspects of being male or female and gender to refer to the culturally constructed aspects.

 

Ans: Students’ responses should reference the difficulty in discerning the precise influence of biological and cultural variables in differences between men and women. They should also discuss how the definitions of biological and cultural influence are not always easily separated. For instance, hormonal differences are typically discussed as a biological factor but they are also influenced by social and cultural factors.

 

Learning Objective: 1.2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Sex and Gender

 

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

2. Based on the comments of sociologist Judith Lorber (1994), describe two strategies for making sex and gender more visible along with examples of each.

 

Ans: Varies. Possible responses include flipping gender norms for men and women to expose how they operate. For instance, asking male athletes in sports interviews about their dating life, outfits, or recent weight gain instead of their athletic accomplishments. Students might also describe efforts to ask women actors more in-depth and achievement-oriented questions during interviews. Students may also mention educators’ use of “privilege lists” to encourage members of dominant groups to recognize how their group status shapes their experiences.

 

Learning Objective: 1.2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

 

Answer Location: Ubiquity and Invisibility

 

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

3. Define intersectionality and explain why so many have advocated for a more intersectional lens in the study of sex and gender and in women’s movements.

 

Ans: Intersectionality is an approach that examines how social categories such as sex, gender, race, class, and so on and the advantages and disadvantages associated with them interact to shape people’s experiences and opportunities. Student examples should discuss how traditional perspectives ignore the fact that people don’t belong solely to a sex or gender identity but simultaneously occupy other categories (e.g., race, class, age, nationality). These other categories involve differing levels of privilege and oppression. These inequalities should not be ignored. Advocates ascertain that for women’s movements to progress, other forms of oppression need to be recognized and included.

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

 

Answer Location: Intersectionality | Women’s Movements

 

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

4. Describe three challenges feminism faces toward accomplishing its goals.

 

Ans: Varies. Students should mention obstacles feminism faces in gathering supporters and the negative stereotypes associated with both male and female feminists. Students should also mention the need to increase inclusivity for nonbinary and transgender individuals. They may also mention the need to increase considerations of how gender, race, class, and sexual orientation interact to shape experiences. Students should finally mention the need for feminism to remain flexible and adapt to the updated needs and experiences of younger generations.

 

Learning Objective: 1.3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

 

Answer Location: Feminisms

 

Difficulty Level: Hard