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Test Bank Using Basic Statistics in the Behavioral and Social Sciences 5th Edition by Annabel Ness Evans

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Test Bank Using Basic Statistics in the Behavioral and Social Sciences 5th Edition by Annabel Ness Evans

Test Bank Using Basic Statistics in the Behavioral and Social Sciences 5th Edition by Annabel Ness Evans

 

   

 

 

 

1. Ordinal variables have values

 

 

 

a. that differ in name only

 

*b. that differ in quantity

 

c. in which the intervals between values are equal in size

 

d. Both b) and c)

 

e. None of the above

 

 

 

 

 

2. Which one of the following may be classed as an interval variable?

 

 

 

*a. IQ

 

b. height in centimeters

 

c. hair color

 

d. percentage correct

 

e. income

 

 

 

 

 

3. Continuous is to discrete as ___ is to ___.

 

 

 

*a. average number of children per family; number of children in a family

 

b. dependent variable; independent variable

 

c. number of astronauts on a flight; distance in miles from the Earth to the moon

 

d. weight in pounds; temperature

 

e. temperature; weight in pounds

 

 

 

 

 

4. Fahrenheit temperature cannot be considered a ratio variable because

 

 

 

a. it has a real zero point.

 

b. 80 degrees is twice as hot as 40 degrees.

 

*c. zero degrees Fahrenheit does not mean absence of heat.

 

d. the intervals between the values are equal in size.

 

e. None of the above.

 

 

 

 

 

5. "Inferential statistical techniques are used to describe entire populations and so population notation is used." This statement is incorrect because

 

 

 

*a. descriptive, not inferential techniques, are used to describe entire populations.

 

b. when describing entire populations, sample notation should be used.

 

c. inferential statistics are used to describe samples.

 

d. entire populations are too large to describe.

 

e. Actually, the statement is correct.

 

 

 

 

 

6. Sample is to population as ___ is to ___.

 

 

 

a. descriptive statistics; inferential statistics

 

b. discrete; continuous

 

c. X; Y

 

d. N; n

 

*e. n; N

 

 

 

 

 

7. If you are told that N = 26, you know that

 

 

 

a. XN is the 26th score in the distribution.

 

b. X26 is the last score in the distribution

 

c. the score of 26 is the largest score in the distribution.

 

*d. Both a) and b)

 

e. Both b) and c)

 

 

 

 

 

8. A researcher wishes to learn whether women spend more or less time "primping" with others present than when they are alone in a public rest room. The dependent variable is ___ and the independent variable is ___.

 

 

 

a. gender; presence of others; gender

 

b. presence or absence of others; gender

 

*c. time spent primping; presence or absence of others

 

d. time spent primping; gender

 

e. presence or absence of others; time spent primping

 

 

 

 

 

9. Data: XN= 15; A score of 10 occurs 15 times; X3 = 5; the 5th score in the distribution is 10. Given this information, which of the following is true of the X distribution?

 

 

 

a. The last score in the distribution is 10.

 

b. X5 = 3

 

*c. X5 = 10

 

d. There are three 5's.

 

e. N = 15

 

 

 

 

 

10. Descriptive statistics include procedures for

 

 

 

a. describing trends in data.

 

b. presenting data in graphic form.

 

c. comparing several distributions.

 

*d. All of the above are correct.

 

e. Only a) and b) are correct.

 

 

 

 

 

11. Of the following, select the one that is most likely a sample.

 

 

 

a. all first year students over 180 cm tall

 

*b. 15 of all blue-eyed first year students

 

c. all first year students

 

d. all married couples bowling on Friday night

 

e. the 26 people on Express Bus #64

 

 

 

 

 

12. A researcher discovers that age and income are related in a systematic way. To describe this relationship, we would probably use a

 

 

 

*a. correlational technique.

 

b. inferential technique.

 

c. predictive technique.

 

d. descriptive technique.

 

e. None of the above.

 

 

 

 

 

13. A teacher arranges her students in a line from tallest to shortest and then numbers them from 1 to 20, starting with the tallest. Given this information, which of the following is TRUE?

 

 

 

a. Height of students is an ordinal variable.

 

b. Height of students is a nominal variable.

 

c. The assigned numbers are nominal.

 

*d. The assigned numbers are ordinal.

 

e. The assigned numbers are ratio.

 

 

 

 

 

14. A scientist is asked to conduct an experiment but first he must sort out his variables. Because this project is "Top Secret" he is told only that for the variable "zip," a value of 8 is twice as large as 4. From this information, he knows that

 

 

 

a. "zip" is an interval variable.

 

b. "zip" has no real zero point.

 

*c. "zip" has a real zero point.

 

d. "zip" is a discrete variable.

 

e. he will have to use inferential statistics.

 

 

 

 

 

15. On the planet "X," age is an interval variable. This indicates that

 

 

 

a. on "X," a 25 year old is 5 times as old as a 5 year old.

 

b. the inhabitants of "X" never die.

 

*c. the difference in age between a 10 and a 15 year old is the same as the difference between a 12 and a 17 year old.

 

d. at birth, an inhabitant's age would be zero.

 

e. time would pass more quickly on "X."

 

 

 

 

 

16. Which of the following most likely represents a population?

 

 

 

a. 21 of the green-eyed librarians on campus

 

b. 50 of the first year psychology students

 

c. 3 of the dog owners on University Avenue

 

*d. all percussionists in Alaska

 

e. 25% of all fooz-ball players

 

 

 

 

 

17. Data: N = 25; X25 = 4; X1 = 25; Given this information, which of the following is TRUE?

 

 

 

a. The 4th score in the distribution has a value of 25.

 

*b. The last score in the distribution has a value of 4.

 

c. There are a total of 4 scores in the distribution.

 

d. The 25th score in the distribution has a value of 1.

 

e. Both a) and d) are correct.

 

 

 

 

 

18. Independent variable is to ___ as dependent variable is to ___.

 

 

 

a. constant; continuous

 

b. continuous; discrete

 

c. discrete; continuous

 

*d. cause; effect

 

e. nominal variable; ordinal variable

 

 

 

 

 

19. Which one of the following is a discrete variable?

 

 

 

a. academic ability

 

*b. number of books in a library

 

c. reaction time in milliseconds

 

d. temperature in degrees Celsius

 

e. distance in kilometers

 

 

 

 

 

20. X5 refers to

 

 

 

a. a score of 5.

 

b. the 5th largest score in the X distribution.

 

*c. the 5th score in the X distribution but not necessarily the 5th largest.

 

d. the fact that there are only 5 scores in the X distribution.

 

e. Both b) and d) are correct.

 

 

 

 

 

21. A participant variable

 

 

 

a. is necessarily a continuous variable.

 

b. is necessarily a ratio variable.

 

c. has values that the experimenter can manipulate directly.

 

*d. has values that are not manipulated by the experimenter.

 

e. has only one value.

 

 

 

 

 

22. A university that uses the correlation between an entrance exam and university performance to make decisions about applicants, is using what type of technique?

 

 

 

a. inference

 

b. description

 

c. correlation

 

*d. prediction

 

 

 

 

 

23. Observation, self report, and standardized tests are all used by researchers to ___ behavior.

 

 

 

a. describe

 

b. infer

 

c. predict

 

*d. measure

 

 

 

 

 

24. If a research outcome does not generalize to other situations and participants, we say it lacks ___.

 

 

 

a. generalizability

 

*b. validity

 

c. reliability

 

d. significance

 

 

 

 

 

25. One factor affecting internal validity is the initial difference between participants before any kind of training or treatment is given. This factor is called ___.

 

 

 

a. retroactive history

 

*b. proactive history

 

c. maturation

 

d. attrition

 

 

 

 

 

26. Proactive history, retroactive history, and maturation are factors that may affect the ___ of an investigation.

 

 

 

*a. internal validity

 

b. external validity

 

c. experimental mortality

 

d. experimental design

 

 

 

 

 

27. A sample that is not representative of the population from which it was selected is said to be ___.

 

 

 

a. non-representative

 

b. non-significant

 

*c. biased

 

d. non-random

 

 

 

 

 

28. A design in which the researcher manipulates independent variables to assess their influence on dependent variables is called a(n) ___.

 

 

 

*a. experimental design

 

b. correlational design

 

c. case study design

 

d. evaluation design

 

 

 

 

 

29. A design in which the researcher measures the relationship between two or more variables is called a(n) ___.

 

 

 

a. experimental design

 

*b. correlational design

 

c. case study design

 

d. evaluation design

 

 

 

 

 

30. A design in which the researcher gathers in-depth information about an individual is called a(n)___.

 

 

 

a. experimental design

 

b. cross-cultural

 

*c. case study design

 

d. evaluation design

 

 

 

 

 

31. A design in which the researcher compares behavior patterns of North Americans with Asians is called a(n) ___.

 

 

 

a. experimental design

 

*b. cross-cultural

 

c. case study design

 

d. evaluation design

 

 

 

 

 

32. A design in which the researcher examines an existing educational or social program to see if it is effective or not is called a(n) ___.

 

 

 

a. experimental design

 

b. cross-cultural

 

c. case study design

 

*d. evaluation design

 

 

 

 

 

33. Describe the difference between a variable and a constant and provide an example of each.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

A variable has values that vary in quantity such as height and IQ scores or quality such as color and gender. A constant has only one value such as class average on a test.

 

 

 

 

 

34. What is a participant variable? Provide an example of an organismic variable.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

Participant variables are non-manipulated variables. Organismic variables are inherent in the organism such as gender, IQ, and level of education.

 

 

 

 

 

35. Describe the difference between independent and dependent variables.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

The experimenter directly manipulates the IV. DVs are measures of responding that are expected to be influenced by the IV.

 

 

 

 

 

36. Describe the difference between continuous and discrete variables.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

Continuous variables may take on any value within an infinite series of possible values. Discrete variables take on a certain defined set of values.

 

 

 

 

 

37. What is an ordinal variable? Provide an example.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

Ordinal variables have values ordered according to quantity. Numbers assigned reflect the order. Example: 1st, 2nd, 3rd stars in a hockey game.

 

 

 

 

 

38. What is a nominal variable? Provide an example.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

Nominal variables have values that differ in quality not quantity. Example: hair color, gender, college major.

 

 

 

 

 

39. What is an interval variable? Provide an example.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

Interval variables have equal-sized intervals between values and have an arbitrary zero point. Example: Celsius temperature, IQ.

 

 

 

 

 

40. What is a ratio variable? Provide an example.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

Ratio variables have equal-sized intervals and a real zero point. Example: Reaction time in milliseconds, percentage correct.

 

 

 

 

 

41. Describe in words what X23 means.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

This score is the 23rd score in the X distribution.

 

 

 

 

 

42. Explain how weight is continuous in theory but discrete in practice.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

A person's weight can take on any value within an infinite series of values but the measurement scale can only make discrete measurements.

 

 

 

 

 

43. "A value of zero in an interval scale indicates zero amount of whatever is being measured." Is this statement correct or not? Explain using an example.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

Incorrect. The zero point is arbitrary; 0 degrees Celsius does not mean absence of heat.

 

 

 

 

 

44. Reaction time of female and male college students is measured after they have consumed various amounts of alcohol. What is (are) the IV(s)? What is (are) the DV(s)? What is (are) the participant variable(s)?

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

amount of alcohol consumed; reaction time; gender

 

 

 

 

 

45. Explain why a 100 kg crate of oranges is twice as heavy as a 50 kg crate but a size 10 tennis shoe is not twice as large as a size 5 tennis shoe.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

Weight is a ratio variable and has a true zero point. Shoe size is an interval variable. For example, a size 0 shoe fits the foot of a newborn.

 

 

 

 

 

46. Identify the following variable as nominal (N), ordinal (O), interval (I), or ratio (R) and as discrete (D) or continuous (C): gold, silver, and bronze standing in sporting events

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

OD

 

 

 

 

 

47. Identify the following variable as nominal (N), ordinal (O), interval (I), or ratio (R) and as discrete (D) or continuous (C): fraternity

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

ND

 

 

 

 

 

48. Identify the following variable as nominal (N), ordinal (O), interval (I), or ratio (R) and as discrete (D) or continuous (C): grade in school (i.e., Grade 4)

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

ID

 

 

 

 

 

49. Identify the following variable as nominal (N), ordinal (O), interval (I), or ratio (R) and as discrete (D) or continuous (C): distance between towns in kilometers

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

RC

 

 

 

 

 

50. Identify the following variable as nominal (N), ordinal (O), interval (I), or ratio (R) and as discrete (D) or continuous (C): city population size

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

RD

 

 

 

 

 

51. Identify the following variable as nominal (N), ordinal (O), interval (I), or ratio (R) and as discrete (D) or continuous (C): average yearly income

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

RC

 

 

 

 

 

52. Identify the following variable as nominal (N), ordinal (O), interval (I), or ratio (R) and as discrete (D) or continuous (C): average height of professional basketball players

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

RC

 

 

 

 

 

53. Identify the following variable as nominal (N), ordinal (O), interval (I), or ratio (R) and as discrete (D) or continuous (C): post position numbers in a horse race

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

ND

 

 

 

 

 

54. Identify the following variable as nominal (N), ordinal (O), interval (I), or ratio (R) and as discrete (D) or continuous (C): win, place, and show horse in a race

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

OD

 

 

 

 

 

55. Identify the following variable as nominal (N), ordinal (O), interval (I), or ratio (R) and as discrete (D) or continuous (C): hat size

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

ID

 

 

 

 

 

56. Describe the role of statistics in the research process.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

Statistics take the middle step between the question and the conclusion.

 

 

 

 

 

57. Describe how observation, self-report, and standardized tests are used by researchers to measure behavior.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

Observation involves observing the behavior as it occurs. Self-report involves gathering subjective data from participants regarding their own attitudes, opinions, etc., often in the form of a questionnaire. Standardized tests are used to assess an individual with respect to population norms.

 

 

 

 

 

58. Describe the difference between internal and external validity.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

Internal validity: Research outcomes that are dependent upon the specific variables of study. External validity: Research outcomes that generalize to other situations and participants.

 

 

 

 

 

59. Describe how proactive history can affect internal validity.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

Initial differences between participants make it difficult to interpret any differences following treatment.

 

 

 

 

 

60. Describe how retroactive history can affect internal validity.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

Events that influence participants in some groups may affect the interpretation of outcomes following treatment.

 

 

 

 

 

61. Describe how maturation can affect internal validity.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

Developmental changes occurring during the course of the study mask the effects of the treatment.

 

 

 

 

 

62. Describe how testing can affect internal validity.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

Testing itself can influence participants regardless of the treatment.

 

 

 

 

 

63. Describe how attrition can affect internal validity.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

Differential loss of participants from some groups may affect the interpretation of outcomes following treatment.

 

 

 

 

 

64. Describe how investigator bias can affect internal validity.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

Expectations of the experimenter have been shown to influence outcomes.

 

 

 

 

 

65. Describe how sampling bias can affect external validity.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

If the sample is not representative of the population about which inferences are being made, then such inferences will be invalid.

 

 

 

 

 

66. What is the Hawthorne effect?

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

The Hawthorne effect refers to the effect on behavior of individuals who are aware they are participating in a research study simply because they are specially treated.

 

 

 

 

 

67. Describe the basic difference between an experimental and a correlational research design?

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

An experimental design is one in which the experimenter has control over and manipulates independent variables. In correlational studies, the researcher looks for relationships among variables but does not manipulate variables.

 

 

 

 

 

68. What is a case study?

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

A case study involves as in depth analysis of an individual and is often used by clinicians and physiological psychologists.

 

 

 

 

 

69. What is a cross-cultural design?

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

A cross-cultural design compares behavior patterns of different cultural groups.

 

 

 

 

 

70. What is an evaluation research design?

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

Evaluation research involves measuring the effectiveness of a given training or treatment program.

 

 

 

 

 

71. Several studies have been reported showing a link between exposure to violent TV programs and aggressive behavior in children. Typically data are collected from parents about the viewing habits of their children and from teachers about the aggressiveness of those children at school, during recess etc. These data are often rating scale data. It is sometimes found that those children rated as high violent TV-watchers are also rated as more aggressive by their teachers than those children who are rated as low violent TV-watchers. If each child is rated on scales from 1 to 10 in terms of TV habits and aggressiveness at school, what scale of measurement is involved? Is the rating a discrete or a continuous variable? What method of data collection is being described here?

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

The rating scale is an interval scale of measurement, and the variable is discrete. The data are collected through observation.

 

 

 

 

 

72. Several studies have been reported showing a link between exposure to violent TV programs and aggressive behavior in children. Typically data are collected from parents about the viewing habits of their children and from teachers about the aggressiveness of those children at school, during recess etc. These data are often rating scale data. It is sometimes found that those children rated as high violent TV-watchers are also rated as more aggressive by their teachers than those children who are rated as low violent TV-watchers. This is an example of a correlational approach. People who hear about these kinds of findings assume that exposure to violent TV causes children to behave more aggressively. Provide another explanation for the presumed relationship between the variables.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

Children who are aggressive in their play habits may choose to watch violent TV. Parents who encourage aggressive behavior in their children may be more indifferent about their TV habits than parents who discourage aggressive behavior.

 

 

 

 

 

73. Several studies have been reported showing a link between exposure to violent TV programs and aggressive behavior in children. Typically data are collected from parents about the viewing habits of their children and from teachers about the aggressiveness of those children at school, during recess etc. These data are often rating scale data. It is sometimes found that those children rated as high violent TV-watchers are also rated as more aggressive by their teachers than those children who are rated as low violent TV-watchers. Redesign this research problem using an experimental approach. Indicate the independent and the dependent variable and any participant variables you are proposing. Indicate what method of measurement you will use and the scale of measurement of each variable. Indicate how you will control factors that might influence validity.

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

One way to redesign the study might be to randomly assign children to each of two groups. One group would be exposed to a violent cartoon, and the other group would be exposed to an equally exciting but non-violent cartoon. All children would then be observed by an independent blind observer who would count the number of aggressive acts committed by each child. An aggressive act would be carefully defined. The nominal independent variable is type of cartoon; the ratio dependent variable is number of aggressive acts. The method of measurement is observation. Several participant variables could be studied including gender, age etc.

 

 

 

 

 

74. Altitude is a concern for any airline pilot. Is altitude as reported by airline pilots an interval or a ratio variable?

 

 

 

Correct Answer:

 

Airline pilots report their altitude from the ground over which they are flying. For this reason altitude is an interval variable because the zero point is determined by ground level. If altitude were always measured from sea level then it would be ratio variable.

 

 

 

 

 

75. Choose all of the correct alternatives. If people are classified by eye color into blue, brown, or hazel, eye color is

 

 

 

*a. a discrete variable.

 

b. a continuous variable.

 

*c. a nominal variable.

 

d. an ordinal variable.

 

e. a quantitative variable.

 

*f. a qualitative variable.

 

*g. a participant variable.

 

 

 

 

 

76. Choose all of the correct alternatives. A dermatologist wants to study the effects of a new product on teenage acne. She selects three groups of teenagers from her practice. A control group is given a "placebo" cream to use for 3 months. A second group is given the new product, "Zit go Away," to use for 3 months, and the third group is given her old product, "Acne Plus," to use for the same period. At the end of the treatment period each teen is assessed by an independent physician who records the proportion of skin area free of acne break-outs.

 

 

 

*a. Type of cream is the independent variable.

 

b. Type of cream is the dependent variable.

 

*c. The independent variable has three values.

 

d. The skin assessment measure is the independent variable.

 

*e. The dependent variable is continuous.

 

 

 

 

 

77. Choose all of the correct alternatives. Which of the following are participant variables?

 

 

 

a. brand of pain reliever given to three groups of randomly assigned headache sufferers

 

*b. brand of pain reliever chosen by headache sufferers

 

*c. level of clinical depression (high, moderate, low)

 

*d. age

 

*e. height of women

 

 

 

 

 

78. Choose all of the correct alternatives. In Experiment #1, athletes are categorized into three groups; short, average, or tall. In Experiment #2, the height of each athlete is measured in inches.

 

 

 

a. In both experiments height, as measured, in an ordinal variable.

 

b. In both experiments height, as measured, is a discrete variable.

 

*c. In Experiment #1, height is measured on an ordinal scale.

 

d. In Experiment #1, height is measured on a nominal scale.

 

*e. In Experiment #2, height, as measured, is a continuous variable.

 

 

 

 

 

79. Choose all of the correct alternatives. If we were to number cities from 1 to 100 according to the size of their population, we would have

 

 

 

a. an interval variable.

 

*b. a discrete variable.

 

c. a continuous variable.

 

d. a constant.

 

*e. an ordinal variable.

 

 

 

 

 

80. Choose all of the correct alternatives. Methods of measurement commonly used in psychological research include

 

 

 

*a. observation.

 

b. free-association.

 

*c. self-report.

 

*d. standardized tests.

 

 

 

 

 

81. Choose all of the correct alternatives. Factors that might threaten internal validity include

 

 

 

*a. proactive and retroactive history.

 

*b. maturation.

 

*c. attrition.

 

d. sampling bias.

 

 

 

 

 

82. Choose all of the correct alternatives. Factors that might threaten internal validity include

 

 

 

*a. testing.

 

*b. investigator bias.

 

c. the Hawthorne effect.

 

*d. maturation.

 

 

 

 

 

83. Choose all of the correct alternatives. People who participate in research may behave differently simply because they receive special treatment. This

 

 

 

*a. is called the Hawthorne effect.

 

*b. can threaten external validity.

 

c. is called sampling bias.

 

d. is called experimental mortality.

 

 

 

 

 

84. Choose all of the correct alternatives. An experimental design

 

 

 

*a. permits inference of cause and effect.

 

*b. manipulates an IV.

 

c. is an in depth study of an individual.

 

*d. often uses control groups.

 

 

 

 

 

85. Choose all of the correct alternatives. An investigator who reports that students who spend more hours studying perform better on exams than students who spend fewer hours studying

 

 

 

a. has probably used the case study method.

 

*b. is stating the existence of a correlation.

 

c. has failed to control extraneous variables.

 

d. is surely stating a relationship between an IV and a DV.

 

 

 

 

 

86. Choose all of the correct alternatives. A cross-cultural design

 

 

 

*a. may involve questionnaires, standardized tests, or observation.

 

b. involves an in-depth study of an individual.

 

*c. compares behavior patterns evident in different cultural groups.

 

d. is an evaluation device used in varied settings.

 

 

 

 

 

87. Choose all of the correct alternatives. A researcher hired by the government to determine if a social program is effective in meeting its goals will

 

 

 

a. most likely use a case study design.

 

b. most likely use a cross-cultural design.

 

*c. most likely use an evaluation research design.

 

*d. be concerned with the Hawthorne effect.

 

 

 

 

 

88. TRUE or FALSE. In a study designed to determine the effect of ambient noise on reaction time, reaction time is an independent variable.

 

 

 

a. True

 

*b. False

 

 

 

 

 

89. TRUE or FALSE. The appraised value of paintings is an example of a nominal variable.

 

 

 

a. True

 

*b. False

 

 

 

 

 

90. TRUE or FALSE. The total number of observations in a distribution is represented by N.

 

 

 

*a. True

 

b. False

 

 

 

 

 

91. TRUE or FALSE. Descriptive statistics use sample data to make inferences about population parameters.

 

 

 

a. True

 

*b. False

 

 

 

 

 

92. TRUE or FALSE. A continuous variable has a finite set of possible values.

 

 

 

a. True

 

*b. False

 

 

 

 

 

93. TRUE or FALSE. Variables can vary in quantity or quality.

 

 

 

*a. True

 

b. False

 

 

 

 

 

94. TRUE or FALSE. The variable, number of crimes committed each month, is a ratio variable because it has an arbitrary zero point.

 

 

 

a. True

 

*b. False

 

 

 

 

 

95. TRUE or FALSE. XN = X60 means that there are 60 scores in the X distribution.

 

 

 

*a. True

 

b. False

 

 

 

 

 

96. TRUE or FALSE. The independent variable is directly manipulated by the experimenter.

 

 

 

*a. True

 

b. False

 

 

 

 

 

97. TRUE or FALSE. Number of complete heart beats per minute for patients on the cardiac ward is a continuous variable.

 

 

 

a. True

 

*b. False

 

 

 

 

 

98. TRUE or FALSE. Field researchers study behavior in its natural environment.

 

 

 

*a. True

 

b. False

 

 

 

 

 

99. TRUE or FALSE. Attitudes and opinions are best measured through observation.

 

 

 

a. True

 

*b. False

 

 

 

 

 

100. TRUE or FALSE. If the outcome of a research study was dependent upon the specific variables studied, we may say the study is internally valid.

 

 

 

*a. True

 

b. False

 

 

 

 

 

101. TRUE or FALSE. If different groups in a research study are not initially equivalent, internal validity is threatened due to differences in retroactive history.

 

 

 

a. True

 

*b. False

 

 

 

 

 

102. TRUE or FALSE. A research study outcome that was influenced by the opinions or beliefs of the researcher is said to suffer from investigator bias and may lack internal validity.

 

 

 

*a. True

 

b. False

 

 

 

 

 

103. TRUE or FALSE. A research study conducted on university students may not generalize to the entire population. We would say this study lacks internal validity due to maturation differences.

 

 

 

a. True

 

*b. False

 

 

 

 

 

104. TRUE or FALSE. In an experimental design, IVs are manipulated to determine if such manipulations cause changes in DVs.

 

 

 

*a. True

 

b. False